The internal anatomy of the tapir is analogous to the domestic horse and other perissodactyla.
- Guttural Pouches: The guttural pouches of the tapir are similar to those of the horse. They are located in the pharyngeal region, lateral to the hyoid bones and are best evaluated after the tongue and trachea (pluck) have been removed. Both guttural pouches should be examined for the presence of exudates, concretions, etc. Bacterial cultures of any exudates should be obtained.
- Testes: The testes are in the inguinal canals, which are located in the subcutaneous tissues on either side of the penis.
- Gallbladder: Tapirs lack a gallbladder.
- Stomach: The squamous portion of the stomach is small and is located in the cardia (near the gastroesophageal junction). Samples of the squamous and glandular portions of the stomach should be collected for histopathology.
- Kidneys: The kidneys are like the horse (not lobulated). The adrenal glands are closely associated with the kidneys.
- Pleura: The normal parietal and visceral pleura can be thick and prominent, but only the Malayan tapirs should have adhesions between the lung and chest wall (as in the elephant).
All of the following tissues may be placed together in a single container of 10% neutral buffered formalin. THE VOLUME OF FORMALIN SHOULD BE AT LEAST 10 TIMES THE TOTAL VOLUME OF THE TISSUES COLLECTED. Tissues should ne no thicker than 0.5cm and need be no larger than 2cm X 2cm.
Skin (from dorsum) Liver Muscle (medial thigh, with sciatic nerve) Adrenal Tongue Gonad Guttural pouches Uterus Trachea Pancreas Thyroid/Parathyroid Spleen Thymus Kidney Lung Adrenal Heart Gonad Aorta Uterus Salivary gland Urinary Bladder Esophagus Pituitary Stomach (squamous and glandular) Cerebrum Duodenum Cerebellum Jejunum Eye Cecum Large colon Small colon Lymph node (peripheral and mesenteric) Thyroid/Parathyroid.
For neonatal animals be sure to:
- Get a piece of the UMBILICUS with surrounding skin (obtain bacterial cultures if there is evidence of infection).
- Examine the FEET in new/still-born animals for evidence of wear (indicating whether they were able to stand and walk).
- Note the size of the thymus (cranial to the heart).
- Examine the STOMACH and intestinal content for evidence of nursing.
- Examine the LUNGS carefully and evaluate degree of inflation (NOTE whether sections of lung float in formalin)
- Note whether there is MECONIUM in the colon/rectum.
- Check carefully for evidence of congenital deformities.
TAPIR TAG NECROPSY REPORT NECROPSY FINDINGS
|IDENTIFICATION NUMBER/ NAME:
||STUD BOOK #
||DATE OF ACQUSISION
|HOUSED WITH OPPOSITE SEX?Y/N
|DATE OF DEATH
||DATE OF NECROPSY
|TIME OF DEATH
||TIME OF NECROPSY
History (include copy of medical record if possible):
GENERAL: Degree of Autolysis: Nutritional Condition:
SKIN AND PELAGE (NOTE amount of subcutaneous adipose):
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (NOTE amount of coronary groove adipose):
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (Guttural Pouches, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs):
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (Teeth, Gingiva, Tongue, Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines, Liver, Pancreas; NOTE any abnormal content or fecal consistency):
HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM (Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Bone Marrow):
GENITOURINARY SYSTEM (Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Testes/Ovaries, Uterus, Mammary Gland):
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (Thyroids/Parathyroids, Pituitary, Adrenal):
SPECIAL SENSES (Eyes, Ears):
ABORTIONS AND STILLBIRTHS
Abortions and stillbirths are relatively common problems in tapirs. In order to maximize diagnostic success in these cases, the following protocol should be followed whenever possible. Samples should be submitted to the pathology and microbiology laboratories normally utilized by the institution housing the animal(s).
- Carefully examine the placenta and obtain cultures for bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic) and fungi. Note any areas of discoloration, exudation, or necrosis. Tapirs have diffuse placentation. Look for avillous areas (there should be none).
- Measure the length and diameter of the placenta (tapir placentas reportedly only occupy one horn of the uterus; the shape of the placenta should therefore be a simple tube). These measurements are important for documenting placental insufficiency.
- Check the placenta for completeness (an incomplete placenta could indicate partial placental retention in the dam, which can be fatal).
- Measure the length of the umbilical cord and note where the cord attaches to the placenta.
- Obtain representative sections of the placenta and umbilical cord for histopathology (formalin fixation) and freezing (-20o or -70o).
- Estimate stage of gestation (first, second, or third trimester) and degree of autolysis.
- Obtain weight and crown-rump length.
- Examine carefully for evidence of congenital deformities and note overall nutritional condition. Describe and obtain samples of any fluid in the body cavities.
- Collect stomach content (1-3cc) in a sterile syringe for bacterial culture (aerobic and anaerobic) and cytology (to look for bacteria and inflammatory cells).
- Collect a complete set of tissues for histopathology (see adult necropsy protocol). MINIMUM TISSUE REQUIREMENT: Lung, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, and lymph node.
- Collect 25-100g each of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen for freezing.