GUIDELINES FOR PRESHIPMENT TESTING, TRANSPORT
AND QUARANTINE OF APES
Preshipment testing should be performed within 30-45 days of the anticipated shipping date. Any increase to this time interval should be approved by the veterinary staff of the receiving institution. The following protocol advises that specific baseline laboratory tests are performed for the purpose of evaluating the animal’s current health status. Additional tests are recommended to increase baseline information to determine their significance to individual animal health. The final decision for specific preshipment testing procedures should be made in partnership between the shipping and receiving institutions. To facilitate this, communication between the veterinary staffs of the shipping and receiving institution should occur prior to initiation of preshipment testing. Any abnormal findings discovered during preshipment testing should be communicated to the veterinary staff of the receiving institution in a timely manner.
1. Signalment - age, sex, origin, studbook #, ISIS #
2. Anamnesis – Previous medical history (including previous health screens, medical problems, diagnostic test results, treatments, contraception, anesthetic data and current diet information) should be provided to the veterinary staff of the receiving institution for review prior to preshipment testing.
3. Complete physical examination should be performed by a veterinarian familiar with ape health issues, including complete review of systems (ophthalmic, otic, dental, endocrine, lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal palpation, musculoskeletal, urogenital, neurologic).
4. Body weight. Morphometric data if requested by the SSP.
5. Verification of permanent identification – transponder, tattoo.
6. Radiographs - thoracic and abdominal, VD and lateral. Recommend taking both oblique views of the teeth taken with the jaws open to screen for dental pathology.
7. Negative tuberculin skin test: 0.1 ml of mammalian tuberculin, human isolates (Colorado Serum Co., Synbiotics Corp.) administered intradermally and visually evaluated by veterinary staff for reaction at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Concurrent testing with avian tuberculin may be useful.
8. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure measurements and echocardiography are recommended to assess cardiovascular status, screen for high blood pressure or cardiac disease, and to collect information necessary for the development of species specific reference ranges. See Section 8 of the Guidelines for Ape Preventative Health Programs for more detailed information.
9. Blood collection
· Complete blood count.
· Serum chemistry panel including cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL and protein electrophoresis.
· Serologic testing appropriate for species. For detailed recommendations, see Section 9 of the Guidelines for Ape Preventative Health Programs. Routine retesting of an animal previously determined to be serologically positive for a given antigen may not be warranted. The final decision for specific serologic testing should be based on the serologic status of the previous, shipping, and receiving troops.
· Bank at least 2 ml of serum at the shipping institution. If space does not permit, offer serum to receiving institution before discarding.
10. Fecal analyses
· Negative parasite screen – direct, flotation and sedimentation of feces for detection of endoparasites. If negative parasite screen cannot be achieved, update receiving instituion on status of parasite load.
· Negative fecal culture for enteric pathogens (Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Campylobacter sp., pathogenic E.coli, Yersinia sp.).
11. Verify contraceptive method, if any. See AZA Contraceptive Advisory Group recommendations (http://www.stlzoo.org/downloads/CAGrecs2004.pdf).
· Killed rabies 1 ml intramuscular within 3 yr prior to shipment
· Tetanus toxoid 1 ml intramuscular within 5 yr prior to shipment
· Previous Pneumococcal vaccination – Bonobo
· Influenza vaccination – Bonobo (yearly in late fall) prior to shipment if shipment occurs during October - April
13. Transport Guidelines – The USA has adopted International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations. Some airlines have specific nonhuman primate requirements or restrictions.
· Animals should be crated for shipment to the receiving institution.
· Animals should be trained for voluntary crating whenever possible.
· Zoo staff should accompany an ape in transit whenever possible.
· Certificate of Veterinary Inspection, medical records, and appropriate permits should accompany ape in transit.
· Animals should be shipped in climate-controlled manner, with temperatures optimally held between 60-85 F.
14. Quarantine – should follow AZA guidelines. Recommended:
· Review previous health records.
· Gradually switch animal to new diet while monitoring food intake, stool consistency and weight.
· Weigh animal at time of quarantine entry, examination and exit.
· Minimum of 3 consecutive negative fecal examinations for parasites (direct, float and sedimentation) and 3 consecutive negative fecal or rectal cultures for enteric pathogens (Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Campylobacter sp., pathogenic E.coli, Yersinia sp.).
· Complete physical examination by veterinarian familiar with ape health issues, including complete review of systems (ophthalmic, otic, dental, endocrine, lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal palpation, musculoskeletal, urogenital, neurologic).
· Verify permanent identification – transponder, tattoo
· Body weight, and morphometric data if requested by SSP
· Thoracic, abdominal and dental radiographs
· Negative tuberculin skin test: 0.1 ml of mammalian tuberculin (human isolates) administered intradermally and visually evaluated by veterinary staff for reaction at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Test must be administered a minimum of 14 days after preshipment testing.
· Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood pressure measurements to screen for high blood pressure and cardiac disease. Send echocardiogram results and blood pressure measurements to SSP Veterinary Advisor for development of normal reference ranges.
· Complete blood count
§ Serum chemistry panel, including cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, and protein electrophoresis. Consider baseline thyroid testing, and Vitamin B12 and folate levels.
· Serologic testing appropriate for species.
· Bank at least 2 ml of serum.
· Bank genetic material as recommended by BBAG protocol.
· Complete any vaccinations not administered by shipping institution.
Revised August 2004