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Annual due date 12/31


Fax: 330-825-0090 

SSP/TAG: White-winged wood duck  DATE: 2004-2006 


Name: Gary Riggs    e-mail: 

Institution:  Akron Zoological Park 

Address: 500 Edgewood Ave. Akron, Ohio       

Phone: (day) 330-825-1637  (evening)330-730-0283 (FAX) 330-825-0090 


    The most significant morbidity issue for the species remains mycobacterial infection. 

MORTALITY (Causes of death in this year):

      Reported deaths 2004: 10

      Reported deaths 2005: 9

      Reported deaths 2006: 12 

    Causes of death were varied with the exception of mycobacterial infection, especially in certain populations. In the target population, mycobacterial infection results in a plateauing of group age with few surviving beyond 3-4 years of age. This pattern is not seen in dispersed individuals in other collections. Also of note has been repeated incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in southern collections. 


      Reported in 2004: 3

      Reported in 2005: 17

      Reported in 2006: 9

      Sex distribution is unknown.  The majority were incubator raised. 


    WWWD’s are easily anesthetized with mask application of isoflurane (or sevoflurane).  For anything more than momentary sedation, endotracheal tube placement and assisted ventilation is recommended. 


    West Nile vaccination is recommended in risk areas.  Initial vaccination (1cc) with booster at two weeks followed by yearly pre-season booster. 


      None recommended.  Breeding is requested to build captive population. 


    Serum banking is requested opportunistically.  If unable to store at your institution, please contact SSP vet advisor for shipping to our facility. 


      Northwest Zoopath: Dr. Mike Garner 


      Mycobacterial project: In conjunction with Sylvan Heights Waterfowl farm. 


      Standard waterfowl recommendations. 


      We recommend the following to minimize disease/mycobacterial/SCC impact

    1. Non-pinioned birds
    2. High/shaded perching
    3. Minimize soil-water interface at ponds, especially in acidic soil areas regions.
    4. Minimize population densities (keep as single breeding pairs if possible)
    5. Routine UVB soil and water exposure is recommended however shaded perching to minimize continuous UV exposure to the individual birds is desirable.



    • Fecal Float
    • CBC/Differential/hemoparasite screen
    • Serum Chemistries (minimum)
      • Calcium/Phosphorous
      • AST
      • Bile Acid
      • CPK
      • Uric Acid
    • VD/Lateral Radiographs
    • Banked serum/plasma

      -Necropsy Protocol

    • Lesion/Fecal Acid Fast
    • Fecal Float
    • Histopath: Northwest ZooPath: Dr. Mike Garner
      • Brain
      • Heart
      • Lungs
      • Liver
      • Spleen
      • Proventriculus/Ventriculus
      • Pancreas-duodenum
      • Jejunum/colon
      • Lesions: freeze sample also
      • Cloaca/Bursa
      • Kidney
      • Adrenal
      • Testes/Ovary Salpinx
    • Frozen Tissue: sent overnight on dry ice (contact Gary Riggs for info)
      • Any granulomatous lesion/mass lesion
      • Fecal material (2-3 grams)
      • Liver (2-3 cm wedge)
      • Intestine (1 cm duodenum, jejunum, ileum/colon)
    • Culture/Sensitivity of any lesion
    • Please fax/e-mail results along with copy of individual’s medarks to:

      Fax: 330-825-0090 


      -no active research presently 


    1. Grange J. Infection and disease due to environmental bacteria. Tran Royal Soc of Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:179-82. 

    2. Tell L, Woods L, Cromie R. Mycobacteriosis in birds. Rev.Sci.Tech.Off.Int.Epiz. 2001;(1):180-203. 

    3. Friend M, Roffe T. Tuberculosis. In: Friend M, Franson C, eds: Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases. US Dept. of Interior;1999:Chapter 8, 93-98. 

    4. Cromie R. Susceptibility of captive wildfowl to avian TB: the importance of genetic and environmental factors.Tubercle;1991:72,105-109. 

    5. Cromie R. The epidemiology of avian tuberculosis in White-winged wood ducks, Cairina Scutulata, at the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge Center (1976-1991). Wildfowl. 1992;43:211-214. 

    6.  Cromie RL, Ash NJ, Brown MJ, Stanford JL. Avian immune response to Mycobacterium avium: the wildfowl example. Dev Comp Immunol. 2000; 24: 169-185.  

    7. Bush M, Montali R. Clinical experience with tuberculosis in exotic birds. In:Montali R,ed: Mycobacterial infections of zoo animals. Smithsonian Institution Press;1978:199-204. 

    8. Falkinham. J. Mycobacterial aerosols and respiratory disease. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;Vol 9:No. 7. 

    9. Thoen C, Richards W. Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1977;170:987-990. 

    10. Cromie R. Avian immune response to mycobacterium avian: the wildfowl example. Dev and Comp Immun. 2000;24:169-185. 

11. Caron L. Growth characteristics of atypical mycobacteria in water and their comparative              resistance to disinfectants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1978;36:839-846.  

12. del Hoyo J, Sargatal J, Cabot J, Eds. Handbook of the birds of the World: Ostriches to Ducks. Lynx editions. Spain. 1992 

13. Riggs G. Mycobacterial infection in waterfowl collections: a conservation perspective. Proc Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet. 2005; 85-90.  

14.  Eichbaum Q, Rubin EJ. Tuberculosis.  Advances in laboratory diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing.  Am J Clin Pathol. 2002; 118: 3-17.  

  1. Morita Y, Maruyama S, Kabeya H, et al. Genetic diversity of the dnaJ gene in the Mycobacterium avium complex. J Med Microbiol. 2004; 53: 813-817

    16.   Miguel D. Saggese DVM, MSc, Gary Riggs DVM, Dipl ABVP (Avian), Ian Tizard BVMS,       PhD, and David N. Phalen DVM, PhD, Dipl ABVP (Avian), Avian Mycobacteriosis in White-Winged Ducks (Cairina Scutulata). AAV conference 2006 


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