SSP/TAG: Prosimian TAG /Ruffed lemur
SSP DATE: 17 May, 2007
VETERINARY ADVISOR CONTACT INFORMATION:
Name: Cathy Williams,
DVM e-mail: email@example.com
Address: 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham,
Phone: (day) 919-489-3364 x 221
(Significant illnesses/issues facing this species this year):
Data collection in progress.
MORTALITY (Causes of death in
Cause of Death SB #
Data collection in progress.
Number of pairs recommended for breeding:
Number of pairs bred:
Number of births:
(Please list successful and unsuccessful protocols):
- Inhalation agents: isoflurane
and sevoflurane to effect (note: both agents can cause marked
hypotension in lemurs. It is recommended to monitor blood pressure when
using these anesthetics)
- medetomidine 40 ug/kg + midazolam
0.2 mg/kg IM, or medetomidine 40 ug/kg + butorphanol 0.2
mg/kg IM 10 minutes prior to induction
- medetomidine 40 ug/kg + butorphanol
0.4 mg/kg + midazolam 0.3 mg/kg IM.
- Telazol 4-6 mg/kg IM (clinic);
10 mg/kg IM (field immobilization)
- Ketamine 6-10 mg/kg + midazolam
0.3 mg/kg IM (note: ruffed lemurs are predisposed to seizures
under ketamine. The agent should not be used alone in this species.)
(Vaccine reactions, new vaccines to be considered):
No vaccines are recommended for routine
use in prosimians. Some institutions use rabies vaccines in situations
were exposure potential exists. No reactions have been reported. Titer
studies at the DLC indicate good titers responses in ruffed lemurs given
killed rabies vaccine IM (Imrab) at 2 year intervals. Titers ranged
from 1:50 to 1:1100 (n=6). It is important to note however that
there is no data to determine what titer levels are protective against
infection in this species.
Some institutions vaccinate prosimians
for tetanus. There is no information on the effectiveness or risk
to benefit ratio of giving this vaccine in prosimians species.
(Methods used, successes, failures):
MGA implants during breeding season.
Depo-Provera 5 mg/kg IM, repeat q 8 wks
during breeding season.
ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS:
- Evaluation of potential causes
of hepatocellular carcinoma in lemurs.
- Evaluation of hepatic iron
content in lemurs and the reliability of serum iron parameters for the
assessment of iron status.
- NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS:
weight) with the remainder consisting of fruits and vegetables. Overfeeding
of fruits and treat items may lead to nutritional imbalances and vitamin/mineral
deficiencies that can compromise immune system function and animal
- Minimize the feeding of fruits
high in vitamin C (primarily citrus) until more information is known
about the affect of vitamin C and iron absorption in this species.
- Emphasize green leafy vegetables
and fresh browse for enrichment over high sugar and carbohydrate containing
- Do not give vitamin/mineral
supplements containing iron.
NEW HEALTH CARE RECOMMENDATIONS:
(See nutritional recommendations)
NEW SSP/TAG PROTOCOLS:
Updated PTAG necropsy protocol available
on the AAZV wesite (www.aazv.org)
INFORMATION FROM THE FIELD:
Dutton CJ, Junge RE, Louis EE. Biomedical
evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)
in Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.
Submitted for publication.
NEW REFERENCES FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY/WEBSITE:
KM, JL Campbell, D Rotstein, CV Williams. Retrospective Evaluation of
the incidence and severity of hemosiderosis in a large captive lemur
population. American Journal of Primatology 68:369-381, 2006.
CV, Campbell J, Glenn, KM. Comparison of serum iron, total iron binding
capacity, Ferritin, and percent transferrin saturation in nine species
of apparently healthy captive lemurs. American Journal of Primatology
RE, and ML. Sauther. Overview on the health and disease ecology of wild
lemurs: conservation implications. In: Gould, L, and M.L. Sauther, eds.
Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptations. Springer, New York. 2006.
BL, Oerke AK, Heistermann M, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E, MacLarnon AM,
Hodges JK. Ultrasound monitoring of embryonic development and foetal
growth in selected lemur species: grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus),
crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus), red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer),
and black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). [Abstract]
International Journal of Primatology.
27(Suppl 1):Abstr # 179. 2006.
CV, and Junge, RE. Prosimians. In: West, G., and D. Heard, eds. Zoo
Animal and Wildlife Anesthesia and Immobilization. Blackwell Publishing,
Ames, IA. 2006. In press.
CJ, Junge RE, Louis EE. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed
lemurs (Varecia variegata) in Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Journal
of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. In press.