Print Page | Contact Us | Report Abuse | Sign In | Join Today
giraffe_reference_biblio

Anderson, W. I.; Cummings, J. F.; Steinberg, H.; de Lahunta, A., and King,

J. M. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and

exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.

Cornell Vet. 1989 Oct; 79(4):339-44.

 

Avalos-Ramirez R, Orlich M, Thiel HJ, Becher P. Evidence for the presence of

two novel pestivirus species. Virology. 2001 Aug 1; 286(2): 456-65

 

Awan, M. A. Identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of

Trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the Luangwa

Valley, Zambia. Acta Trop. 1979 Dec; 36(4):343-7.

 

Backe, K. W. [Communication model. Wolf or giraffe--that is the question].

Krankenpfl J. 1996 Apr; 34(4):161-2.

 

Badeer, H. S. and Hicks, J. W. Hemodynamics of vascular 'waterfall': is the

analogy justified? Respir Physiol. 1992 Feb; 87(2):205-17.

 

Badeer, H. S. Does gravitational pressure of blood hinder flow to the brain

of the giraffe? Comp Biochem Physiol A. 1986; 83(2):207-11.

 

Badeer, H. S. Haemodynamics of the jugular vein in the giraffe. Nature. 1988

Apr 28; 332(6167):788-9.

 

Badeer, H. S. Is the flow in the giraffe's jugular vein a "free" fall? Comp

Biochem Physiol A Physiol. 1997 Nov; 118(3):573-6.

 

Badeer, H.S. 1986. Does gravitational pressure of blood hinder flow to the

brain of the giraffe? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Comparative

Physiology, 83(2):207-211.

 

Baer, D.J., O.T. Oftedal and G.C. Fahey, Jr. 1985. Feed selection and

digestibility by captive giraffe. Zoo Biology, 4(1):57-64.

 

Ball, R.L., S.S. Dibble and T.A. Tims. 1995. Successful management of the

orthopedic problems in two neonatal reticulated giraffes (Giraffa

camelopardalis). American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference

Proceedings, pp. 213-216.

 

Ball, Ray L. Celeste Kearney, Mike Burton, Genevieve Dumonceux, and John H.

Olsen. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY RELATED TO HYPOGLYCEMIA AND CHRONIC ENERGY

MALNUTRITION IN CAPTIVE GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardalis).PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN

ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE. MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.

OCTOBER 5-10, 2002. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

 

Ball, Ray L. Jonathan Miot, Genevieve Dumonceux, and Mike Burton. HEMATOLOGY, SERUM CHEMISTRY, BLOOD COAGULATION PROFILES, AND SEROLOGY OF PHYSICALLY RESTRAINED CAPTIVE RETICULATED GIRAFFE(Giraffa camelopardalis).PROCEEDINGS JOINT CONFERENCE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS and INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR AQUATIC ANIMAL MEDICINE.New Orleans, Louisiana.September 17-21, 2000. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

Barber, P. "Giraffe fetus". J Biol Photogr. 1991 Jul; 59(3):96.

Bashaw MJ, Tarou LR, Maki TS, Maple TL.A survey assessment of variables

related to stereotypy in captive giraffe and okapi. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2001

Aug 1; 73(3): 235-247

Baxter, E.,  and A.B. Plowman. The Effect of Increasing Dietary Fibre on

Feeding, Rumination and Oral Sterotypes in Captive Giraffes (Giraffa

camelopardalis). Animal Welfare. 2001. 10:281-290.

 

Becher, P.; Orlich, M.; Shannon, A. D.; Horner, G.; Konig, M., and Thiel,

H. J. Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses from domestic and wild ruminants.

J Gen Virol. 1997 Jun; 78 ( Pt 6):1357-66.

 

Becher, P.; Orlich, M.; Shannon, A. D.; Horner, G.; Konig, M., and Thiel,

H. J. Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses from domestic and wild ruminants.

J Gen Virol. 1997 Jun; 78 ( Pt 6):1357-66.

 

Beddard, F.E. 1902. Note on crooked neck in a giraffe. Proceedings of the

Zoological Society of London, 52-54.

 

Beintema, J. J.; Gaastra, W., and Munniksma, J. Primary structure of pronghorn

pancreatic ribonuclease: close relationship between giraffe and pronghorn.

J Mol Evol. 1979 Nov; 13(4):305-16.

 

Beintema, J. J.; Gaastra, W.; Scheffer, A. J., and Welling, G. W. Carbohydrate

in pancreatic ribonucleases. Eur J Biochem. 1976 Apr 1; 63(2):441-8.

 

Benbow, G. Management of giraffe. Ungulates. Bristol: Association of British

Wild Animal Keepers and Marwell Zoological Society, pp. 74-78.

 

Bengis, R. G.; Odening, K.; Stolte, M.; Quandt, S., and Bockhardt, I. Three

new Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis giraffae, S. klaseriensis, and S.

camelopardalis (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis) in South Africa. J Parasitol. 1998 Jun; 84(3):562-5.

 

Bingaman Lackey, L. 1996. Status of giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, in North

America. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings

in press.

 

 

 

Black, S. J.; Wang, Q.; Makadzange, T.; Li, Y. L.; Van Praagh, A.; Loomis, M.,

and Seed, J. R. Anti-Trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera. J

Parasitol. 1999 Feb; 85(1):48-53.

 

Boomker, J.; Horak, I. G., and De Vos, V. The helminth parasites of various

artiodactylids from some South African nature reserves. Onderstepoort J Vet

Res. 1986 Jun; 53(2):93-102.

 

Bornmann, J.C. 1987. Giraffe restraint device at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo.

American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference

Proceedings, pp. 443-444.

 

Breukelman, H. J.; Beintema, J. J.; Confalone, E.; Costanzo, C.; Sasso, M. P.;

Carsana, A.; Palmieri, M., and Furia, A. Sequences related to the ox

pancreatic ribonuclease coding region in the genomic DNA of mammalian species.

J Mol Evol. 1993 Jul; 37(1):29-35.

 

Breukelman, H. J.; van der Munnik, N.; Kleineidam, R. G.; Furia, A., and

Beintema, J. J. Secretory ribonuclease genes and pseudogenes in true

ruminants. Gene. 1998 Jun 8; 212(2):259-68.

 

Brown, C. R.; Everitt, V. J., and Baxter, R. M. Comparative metabolism,

thermoregulation and morphology in two populations of vlei rats (Otomys

irroratus). J Comp Physiol [B]. 1999 Feb; 169(1):19-24.

 

Brown, C. R.; Hunter, E. M., and Baxter, R. M. Metabolism and thermoregulation

in the forest shrew Myosorex varius (Soricidae: Crocidurinae). Comp Biochem

Physiol A Physiol. 1997 Dec; 118(4):1285-90.

 

Bullock, J. 1993. Giraffe immobilization at the Jacksonville Zoo. American

Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings,

pp 275-277.

 

Burgdorf, W. H.; Sullivan, M. S.; Jensen, J., and Jordon, F. B. Giant

verrucous carcinoma in a giraffe. Am J Dermatopathol. 1984 Feb; 6(1):81-5.

 

Burgess, J. and D. Blyde. 1991. Hand-rearing and reintroduction of a giraffe,

Giraffa camelopardalis, at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. International Zoo Yearbook,

30:213-215.

 

Burt, F. J.; Swanepoel, R., and Braack, L. E. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent

assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus

in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates. Epidemiol Infect. 1993 Dec;

111(3):547-57.

 

Burton, Michael S. and Ellen S. Dierenfeld. COMPARISONS OF VITAMIN E

INJECTABLES IN GIRAFFES (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALISRETICULATA).PROCEEDINGS

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL MEETING. OCTOBER 21 – 26,

1990. Padre Island TX. Senior Editor Richard C. Cambre.

Bush M, Grobler, DG, Raath, JP, Phillips LG Jr, Stamper MA, Lance WR. Use of

medetomidine and ketamine for immobilization of free-ranging giraffes. J Am

Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jan 15; 218(2): 245-9.

 

Bush, M. 1993. Anesthesia of high-risk animals: giraffe. M.E. Fowler, ed. Zoo

and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders

 pp. 545-547.

 

Bush, M. and V. deVos. 1987. Observations on field immobilization of

free-ranging giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) using carfentanil and xylazine.

Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 18 (4):135-140.

 

Bush, M. Custer R. S. Whitla J. C. (Department of Animal Health, National

Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20008). Hematology and

Serum Chemistry Profiles for Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): Variations

with Sex, Age, and, Restraint. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1980; 122-129.

 

Bush, M., D.G. Grobler, J.P. Raath. The Art and Science of Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis) Immobilization/Anesthesia.  In: Zoological Restraint and

Anesthesia, Editor: D. Heard. 2002. International Veterinary Information

Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, NY, USA.

 

Bush, Mitchell,Cobus Raath, Lyndsey G. Phillips, Jr, and William Lance.

IMMOBILIZATION OF FREE-RANGING GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardalis) USING

MEDETOMIDINE AND KETAMINE.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO

VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENC Houston TX Oct 26-30, 1997. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE

KIRK BAER.

 

Calle, P.P. and J.C. Bornmann II. 1988. Giraffe restraint, habituation, and

desensitization at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo. Zoo Biology, 7 (3):243-252.

 

Chaffee, P. S. Report on death of a giraffe. J Small Anim Pract. 1968 Mar;

9(3):136-7.

 

Chakraborty, A. and B. Chaudhury. 1995. Peracute mortality in a giraffe.

Indian Veterinary Journal, 72(2):181-182.

 

Chakraborty, A. Occurrence and pathology of Gongylonema infection in captive

wild herbivores. Vet Parasitol. 1994 Mar; 52(1-2):163-7.

 

Citino, S. B.; Bush, M., and Phillips, L. G. Dystocia and fatal hyperthermic

episode in a giraffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1984 Dec 1; 185(11):1440-2.

 

 

Clauss, Marcus, A. Deutsch, M. Lechner-Doll, E. Flach, and C. Tack. Passage

rate of fluid and particle phase in captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals; Advances in Ethology 33(1998), Supplements to Ethology. Oct 7-10, 1998. Berlin, Germany. p.98.

 

Clauss, Marcus, Edmund J. Flach, Keb, Ghebremeskel, Jean-Michel Hatt, and

Cliff Tack.  Supplementing the diet of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

with linseed extraction chips.  Proceedings of The First European Zoo

Nutrition Meeting. Jan 8-11, 1999. Rotterdam, The Netherlands. p.49.

 

Clauss, Marcus, Matthias Lechner-Doll, Edmund J. Flach, Cliff Tcak, and

Jean Michel-Hatt.  Comparative Use of Four Different Marker Systems for the

Estimation of Digestibility in a Group of Captive Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis).  Zoo Biology, In Press

 

Clauss, Marcus, Matthias Lechner-Doll, Edmund J. Flach, Cliff Tcak, and

Jean Michel-Hatt.  Low Food Intake in a Group of Captive Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis). Zoo Biology, In Press.

 

Clauss, Marcus, Wm. Kirk Suedmeyer, and Edmund J. Flach.SUSCEPTIBILITY TO

COLD IN CAPTIVE GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardalis). PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN

ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE.Columbus, Ohio.October 9-14

1999. Editor:Charlotte Kirk Baer

 

Clauss, Marcus,.Feeding Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).  Ms.C. Thesis,

University of London. 1998. 

 

Clemens, E.T. and G.M.O. Maloiy. Colonic Absorption and Secretion of Fluids,

Electrolyes and Organic Acids in East African Wild Ruminants.  Comp. Biochem.

Physiol. Vol 77A. No.1, pp. 51-56. 1984.

 

Clemens, E.T. and G.M.O. Maloiy. Digestive Physiology of East African Wild

Ruminants. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 76A. No.2, pp. 319-333. 1983.

 

Clemens, E.T., G.M.O. Maloiy and J.D. Sutton. Molar Proportions of Volatile

Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of East African Wild Ruminants. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 76A. No.2, pp. 217-224. 1983.

 

Clevenger, Marcia. 1980. Handrearing and development of Rothschild's giraffe

at the Oklahoma City Zoo. Zoo Journal 4 (3):1-14.

 

Confalone, E.; Beintema, J. J.; Sasso, M. P.; Carsana, A.; Palmieri, M.; Vento,

M. T., and Furia, A. Molecular evolution of genes encoding ribonucleases in

ruminant species. J Mol Evol. 1995 Dec; 41(6):850-8.

 

Cooper, D. L.; Isola, N. R.; Stevenson, K., and Baptist, E. W. Members of the

ALDH gene family are lens and corneal crystallins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993;

328:169-79.

Crawford, M. A.; Budowski, P.; Drury, P.; Ghebremeskel, K.; Harbige, L.;

Leighfield, M.; Phylactos, A., and Williams, G. The nutritional contribution

to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Nutr Health. 1991; 7(2):61-8.

 

Crawford, MA;Budowski, P;Drury, P;Ghebremeskel, K;Harbige, L; Leighfield,

 M;Phylactos, A;Williams, G.  The nutritional contribution to bovine

spongiform encephalopathy. Nutrition and Health. 1991, VO- 7, NO- 2, PP- 61-68

 

Dagg, A.I. 1960. Gaits of the giraffe and okapi. Journal of Mammalogy, 41:282.

 

Dagg, A.I. 1962. Giraffe movement and the neck. Natural History, 72:44-51.

 

Dagg, A.I. 1962. The role of the neck in the movements of the giraffe. Journal

of Mammalogy, 43:88-97.

 

Dagg, A.I. 1968. External features of giraffe. Mammalia, 32:657-669.

 

Davis, M. 1949. Parturition of the nubian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

Journal of Mammalogy, 51:279-287.

 

Deem, Sharon L.  Scott B. Citino, and Lisa M. Cree. PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN A

NEONATAL RETICULATED GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardis reticulata).PROCEEDINGS

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE MILWAUKEE,

WISCONSIN.OCTOBER 5-10, 2002.EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

 

Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre, Maja Suter,Claudia von Tscharner,Jacques Nicolet, and

Marco Giacometti. DERMATOPHILOSIS IN A FREE-RANGING ROE DEER (Capreolus

capreolus) IN SWITZERLAND: A CASE REPORT. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF

ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE. Houston TX Oct 26-30, 1997. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE

KIRK BAER.

 

Dehority BA, Odenyo AA.J. Influence of diet on the rumen protozoal fauna of

indigenous African wild ruminants.Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003 May-Jun;50(3):220-3.

 

Deka, B.C., K.C. Nath and B.N. Borgohain. 1980. Clinical note on the

morphology of the placenta in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of

Zoo Animal Medicine, 11 (4):117-118.

 

Dekker, A.; Wensvoort, G., and Terpstra, C. Six antigenic groups within the

genus pestivirus as identified by cross neutralization assays. Vet Microbiol.

1995 Dec; 47(3-4):317-29.

 

 

deMaar, Thomas W.and Michael M. Ng’ang’a. NORMAL HOOF ANGLES AND OTHER

PARAMETERS OF SELECTED AFRICAN UNGULATES. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF

ZOO VETERINARIANS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WILDLIFE VETERINARIANS ASSOCIATION

OF REPTILIAN AND AMPHIBIAN VETERINARIANS NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ZOO AND

WILDLIFE VETERINARIANS JOINT CONFERENCE.ORLANDO, FLORIDA.SEPTEMBER 18-23, 2001.EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

 

Demmers, K. J.; Kaluz, S.; Deakin, D. W.; Jabbour, H. N., and Flint, A. P.

Production of interferon by the conceptus in red deer Cervus elaphus.

J Reprod Fertil. 1999 Jan; 115(1):59-65.

 

Depner, K.; Hubschle, O. J., and Liess, B. Prevalence of ruminant pestivirus

infections in Namibia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1991 Jun; 58(2):107-9.

 

Diaz-Zagoya, J. C.; Wiest, W. G., and Arias, F. Metabolism of progesterone by

placentas from several mammalian species in vitro. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979

Nov 15; 135(6):809-13.

 

Dimond, R. L. and Montagna, W. The skin of the giraffe. Anat Rec. 1976 May;

185(1):63-75.

 

Drevemo, S.; Grootenhuis, J. G., and Karstad, L. Blood parameters in wild

ruminants in Kenya. J Wildl Dis. 1974 Oct; 10(4):327-34.

 

Dumonceaux, Genevieve A. Burton Michael S. Ball Ray L. Demuth Andrea

Veterinary Procedures Facilitated by Behavioral Conditioning and

Desensitization in Reticulated Giraffe (Giraff camelopardalis) and Nile

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)Charlotte Kirk Baer, MS. Proceedings

of the American Association of Zoo veterinarians and the American Association

of Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference; Omaha, Nebraska.  p.388-391.

 

Duncan, J. R. Prasse K. W. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Pathology.

Second ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press; 1986.

 

Ebedes, Hymie, Jacobus P Raath. THE USE OF LONG TERM NEUROLEPTICS IN THE

CONFINEMENT AND TRANSPORT OF WILD ANIMALS. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCATION OF

ZOO VETERINARIANS WILDLIFE DISEASE ASSOCIATION AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF

WILDLIFE VETERINARIANS JOINT CONFERENCE.AUGUST 12 - 17, 1995. Editor:

Randall E. Junge.

 

Editorial: The giraffe's parameter. Lancet. 1974 Dec 21; 2(7895):1491-2.

 

Eid, RAA;Rawhia, MAO. Some studies on the enteric parasites of giraffes

(Camelopardalis angolensis) in Giza zoo, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of

Comparative Pathology and Clinical Pathology.1996, VO- 9, NO- 2, PP- 80-88.

 

Endo, H.; Yamagiwa, D.; Fujisawa, M.; Kimura, J.; Kurohmaru, M., and Hayashi,

Y. Modified neck muscular system of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

Anat Anz. 1997 Oct; 179(5):481-5.

 

Epelu-Opio, J. The fine structure of the urinary bladder epithelium in the

hartebeest, Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii and the Masai giraffe, Giraffa

camelopardalis tippelskirchi. Anat Anz. 1975; 138(1-2):46-55.

 

Eriksen, E. [Fracture of the pedal bone in a giraffe. A casuistic report].

Nord Vet Med. 1972 Sep; 24(9):440-5.

 

Eulenberger K.  Medical treatment of dystocia in zoo animals.  Dtsch

Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2000 Dec; 107(12): 512-5. 

 

Ewert, H.O. 1965. Remedial hoof trimming in an adult giraffe, Giraffa,

International Zoo Yearbook, 5:197-200.

 

Felton, G.,Jr. 1977-78. The restraint and treatment of a giraffe with an

injured hoof. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Annual

Proceedings, pp. 146-160.

 

Field, C. R. and Blankenship, L. H. Nutrition and reproduction of Grant's and

Thomson's gazelles, Coke's hartebeest and giraffe in Kenya. J Reprod Fertil

Suppl. 1973 Dec; 19:287-301.

 

Fiorello, Christine V. and Scott B. Citino. EVALUATION OF SERUM GGT ACTIVITY

IN NEONATES AS AN INDICATOR OFPASSIVE IMMUNOGLOBULIN TRANSFER IN EXOTIC

HOOFSTOCK SPECIES.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR AQUATIC ANIMAL MEDICINE JOINT CONFERENCE.

New Orleans, Louisiana.September 17-21, 2000. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

 

Fischer, M. T.; Miller, R. E., and Houston, E. W. Serial tranquilization of a

reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using xylazine. J Zoo

Wildl Med. 1997 Jun; 28(2):182-4.

 

Flach, E.J., S.M. Thornton, J.K. Kirkwood, A.W. Sainsbury. Chronic Loss of

Condition with Persistent Neutrophilla in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis). Proceedings of Spring Meeting of the British Veterinary

Zoological Society. Port Lympne, UK. June 14-15, 1997.

 

Forsyth, I. A. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary

growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental

lactogen. J Dairy Sci. 1986 Mar; 69(3):886-903.

 

Fowler, M. E. Peracute mortality in captive griaffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1978

Nov 1; 173(9):1088-93.

 

Fowler, M.E. 1977. Peracute mortality in captive giraffe. Journal of the

American Veterinary Medical Association, 173(9):1088-1093.

 

Fowler, M.E. 1978. Treating giraffes with isonazid. In: R.J. Montali, ed.

Mycobacterial infections of Zoo Animals, Washington, DC: Smithsonian

Institution Press, pp. 185-188.

 

Fowler, M.E. and W.J. Boever. 1986. Giraffidae (giraffe and okapi). In: M.E.

Fowler, ed. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders,

pp. 986-988.

 

Foxworth, B., G. Flores-Foxworth, T. Robeck, T. Portillo and D. Kraemer. 1993. The successful development of artificial insemination technology in the reticulated giraffe. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Annual Conference Proceedings, pp.

407-409.

 

Foxworth, B., T. Robeck, T. Portillo and G. Foxworth. 1991. Preliminary data

on electroejaculation, semen characteristics, and cryopreservation of sperm in

the reticulated giraffe. Journal of Morphology, 208 (2):193-203.

 

Frank, Kimberly M.and Jay F. Kirkpatrick. PORCINE ZONA PELLUCIDA

IMMUNOCONTRACEPTION IN CAPTIVE EXOTIC SPECIES: SPECIES DIFFERENCES, ADJUVANT

PROTOCOLS, AND TECHNICAL PROBLEMS.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO

VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE. MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.OCTOBER 5-10, 2002.

EDITOR: CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

 

Fukumoto, S.; Uchida, T.; Ohbayashi, M.; Ikebe, Y., and Sasano, S. A new host

record of Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) from

abomasum of a giraffe at a zoo in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 1996 Dec; 58(12):

1223-5.

 

Fukumoto, SI;Uchida, T;Ohbayashi, M;Ikebe, Y;Sasano, S. A new host record of

Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) from abomasum of

a giraffe at a zoo in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 1996,

VO- 58, NO- 12, PP- 1223-1225.

 

Furstenburg, D. and W. van Hoven. Condensed tannin as a defoliate agent

against browsing by giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the Kruger Natonal

Park. Comp. Biochem.Physiol. Vol. 107A, No.2. Pp.425-431, 1994.

 

Gaastra, W.; Groen, G.; Welling, G. W., and Beintema, J. J. The primary

structure of giraffe pancreatic ribonuclease. FEBS Lett. 1974 May 1;

41(2):227-32.

 

Gallagher, D. S. Jr; Derr, J. N., and Womack, J. E. Chromosome conservation

among the advanced pecorans and determination of the primitive bovid

karyotype. J Hered. 1994 May-1994 Jun 30; 85(3):204-10.

Ganey, T 1990. Development of the giraffe horn and its blood supply.

Anatomical Record, 227(4):497-507.

 

Ganey, T., J. Ogden, and J. Olsen. 1989. Giraffe horns: histology and blood

supply. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Zoo

Veterinarians, 204.

 

Ganey, T.; Ogden, J., and Olsen, J. Development of the giraffe horn and its

blood supply. Anat Rec. 1990 Aug; 227(4):497-507.

 

Gardner, H. M.; Hull, B. L.; Hubbell, J. A., and Carter, A. G. Volvulus of the

ileum in a reticulated giraffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986 Nov 1; 189(9):1180-1.

 

Gehring R.J S. Suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in

South Africa (January 1998 - February 2001). Afr Vet Assoc. 2001 Sep; 72(3):

120-6.

 

Geiser, D.R., P.J. Morris and H.S. Adair. 1992. Multiple anesthetic events in

a reticulated giraffe. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 23 (2):189-196.

 

Gilbert, D. E., N. M. Loskutoff, C. G. Dorn, L. A. Nemec, P. P. Calle, D. C. Kraemer, W. R. Threlfall, and B. L. Raphael. 1988. Hormonal manipulation and ultrasonographic monitoring of ovarian activity in the giraffe. Theriogenology 29: 248.

 

Gombe, S. and Kayanja, F. I. Ovarian progestines in Masai Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis). J Reprod Fertil. 1974 Sep; 40(1):45-50.

 

Gomez, MS;Vila, T;Feliu, C;Montoliu, I;Gracenea, M;Fernandez, J. A survey for

Cryptosporidium spp. in mammals at the Barcelona Zoo. International Journal

for Parasitology. 1996, VO- 26, NO- 11, PP- 1331-1333.

 

Gradwell, D. V.; Van Niekerk, C. A., and Joubert, D. C. Attempted artificial

infection of impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with

heartwater. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1976 Sep; 47(3):209-10.

 

Greed, R.E. 1960. Composition of the milk of the giraffe. International Zoo

Yearbook, 2:106.

Grunert, E.; Bader, H.; Dittrich, L.; Brandt, H. P., and Merkt, H. [Fetlock

joint flexion as the cause of a labor complication in a giraffe]. DTW Dtsch

Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1988 Sep; 95(8):315-7.

 

Grunert, E;Bader, H;Dittrich, L;Brandt, HP;Merkt, H. Right fetlock flexion as

a cause of dystocia in a giraffe. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 1988.

VO- 95, NO- 8, PP- 315-317.

 

 

Hahn, C. N. and Mayhew, I. G. Do giraffe roar? Vet Rec. 1999 Jul 3; 145(1):28.

 

Hall-Martin, A. J.; Skinner, J. D., and Hopkins, B. J. The development of the

reproductive organs of the male giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis. J Reprod

Fertil. 1978 Jan; 52(1):1-7.

 

Hall-Martin, A.J. 1976. Dentition and age determination of the giraffe Giraffa

camelopardalis. Journal of Zoology, 180:263-289.

 

Hall-Martin, A.J. and I.W. Rowlands. 1980. Observations on ovarian structure

and development of the southern giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa. South

African Journal of Zoology, 15 (4):217-221.

 

Hall-Martin, A.J. and J.D. Skinner and B.J. Hopkins. 1978. The development of

the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis. Journal

of Reproduction and Fertility, 52(1):1-7.

 

Hall-Martin, A.J. and J.D. Skinner. 1978. Observations on puberty and

pregnancy in female giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. South African Journal of

Wildlife Research, 8:91-94.

 

Hall-Martin, A.J. Food selection by transvaal lowveld giraffe as determined

by analysis of stomach contents. Journal of the South African Wildlife

Management Association, 4 (3): 191-202.

 

Hamblin, C. and Hedger, R. S. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid

herpesvirus 2 in African wildlife. J Wildl Dis. 1982 Oct; 18(4):429-36.

 

Hammond EE, Miller CA, Sneed L, Radcliffe RW. Mycoplasma-associated

polyarthritis in a reticulated giraffe..J Wildl Dis. 2003 Jan;39(1):233-7.

 

Harasawa R, Giangaspero M, Ibata G, Paton DJ.Giraffe strain of pestivirus:

its taxonomic status based on the 5'-untranslated region. Microbiol Immunol.

2000; 44(11): 915-21

 

Hargens, A. R. Gravitational cardiovascular adaptation in the giraffe.

Physiologist. 1987 Feb; 30(1 Suppl):S15-8.

 

Hargens, A. R.; Akeson, W. H.; Mubarak, S. J.; Owen, C. A.; Gershuni, D. H.;

Garfin, S. R.; Lieber, R. L.; Danzig, L. A.; Botte, M. J., and Gelberman,

R. H. Kappa Delta Award paper. Tissue fluid pressures: from basic research

tools to clinical applications. J Orthop Res. 1989; 7(6):902-9.

 

Hargens, A. R.; Millard, R. W.; Pettersson, K., and Johansen, K. Gravitational

haemodynamics and oedema prevention in the giraffe. Nature. 1987 Sep 3-1987

Sep 9; 329(6134):59-60.

Hargens, A.R. 1988. Gravitational cardiovascular adaptation in the giraffe.

Physiologist, 30(1) suppl.:S15-S18.

 

Hargens, A.R. et al. 1987. Gravitational haemodynamics and oedema prevention

in the giraffe. Nature, 329:59-60.

 

Hargens, A.R., D.H. Gershuni, L.A. Danzig, R.W. Millard and K. Pettersson.

1988. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress: newborn versus adult giraffes. Physiologist, 30(1) suppl.:S110-S113.

 

Harrison, D. F. Biomechanics of the giraffe larynx and trachea. Acta

Otolaryngol (Stockh). 1980 Mar-1980 Apr 30; 89(3-4):258-64.

 

Harrison, D. F. Fibre size frequency in the recurrent laryngeal nerves of man

and giraffe. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh). 1981 May-1981 Jun 30; 91(5-6):383-9.

 

Herbst W, Hertrampf B, Schmitt T, Weiss R, Baljer G. Diagnostic of Lawsonia

intracellularis in pigs with and without diarrhea and other animal species

using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003

Sep;110(9):361-4

 

Hicks, J. W. and Badeer, H. S. Siphon mechanism in collapsible tubes:

application to circulation of the giraffe head. Am J Physiol. 1989 Feb;

256(2 Pt 2):R567-71.

 

Hicks, J.W. and H.S. Badeer. 1989. Siphon mechanism in collapsible tubes:

application to circulation of the giraffe head. American Journal of Physiology,

256(2):R567-R571.

 

Hoffmann, R.R. and B. Matern. 1988. Changes in gastrointestinal morphology

related to nutrition in giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis: a comparison of wild

and zoo specimens. International Zoo Yearbook, 27:168-176.

 

Horak, I. G.; MacIvor, K. M.; Petney, T. N., and De Vos, V. Some avian and

mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari:

Ixodidae). Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1987 Sep; 54(3):397-403.

 

Horak, I. G.; Potgieter, F. T.; Walker, J. B.; De Vos, V., and Boomker, J.

The ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in South African

nature reserves. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1983 Sep; 50(3):221-8.

 

Hugh, J.P., C.E. Barter, J.M. Hime and M.M. Rusbridge. 1978. Dead space and

tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals. Respiration

Physiology, 35(1):53-58.

 

 

Hugh-Jones, P.; Barter, C. E.; Hime, J. M., and Rusbridge, M. M. Dead space

and tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals. Respir

Physiol. 1978 Oct; 35(1):53-8.

 

International Species Inventory System (ISIS).  Normal physiological data. 

Apple Valley,  MN; 1989.

 

Irwin, D. M.; Kocher, T. D., and Wilson, A. C. Evolution of the cytochrome b

gene of mammals. J Mol Evol. 1991 Feb; 32(2):128-44.

 

Ismail, IM;ElBegawi, M;Hassan, HB;Hosney, Z. Acute septicaemia affection in

giraffe. Agricultural Research Review.1987, VO- 65, NO- 5,  PP- 905-913

 

Jacobson, E. R.; Poulos, P.; Quesenberry, K.; Buergelt, C. D.; Reinhard, M. K.

and Wollenman, E. P. Polyarthritis and polyosteomyelitis in a juvenile

giraffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986 Nov 1; 189(9):1182-3.

 

James SB, Koss K, Harper J, Martin J.Diagnosis and treatment of a fractured

third phalanx in a Masai giraffe (Giraffe camelopardalis tippelskirchi). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000 Sep; 31(3): 400-3.

 

Jefferson, J. W. Electrocardiographic and phonocardiographic findings in a

reticulated giraffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1971 Sep; 159(5):602-4.

 

Jones, R.J., Meyer, J.H., Bvechaz, F.M., Stoltz, M.A>, Palmer, B., and Merwe,

G. van der. Comparison of rumen fluid from South African game species and

from sheep to digest tanniniferous browse. Australian Journal of Agricultural

Research, 2001, Vol.52, No.4, pp.453-460.

 

Junge, R.E. and T.A. Bradley. 1993. Peracute mortality syndrome of giraffes.

In: M.E. Fowler, ed. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 3rd ed.

Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp. 547-549.

 

Kaliner, G. Observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of

some East African game animals (Artiodactyla). Z Parasitenkd. 1975; 46(1):

13-23.

 

Kaminogawa, S.; Shimoda, M.; Kurisaki, J., and Yamauchi, K. Application of a

monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha- lactalbumins from various

species. J Dairy Sci. 1989 May; 72(5):1124-9.

 

Karstad, L. and Kaminjolo, J. S. Skin papillomas in an impala (Aepyceros

melampus) and a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). J Wildl Dis. 1978 Jul;

14(3):309-13.

 

 

Kayanja, F. I. and Blankenship, L. H. The ovary of the giraffe. J Reprod

Fertil. 1972 Dec; 31(3):492.

 

Kayanja, F. I. The ovary of the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis. J Reprod

Fertil. 1973 Aug; 34(2):305-13.

Kearney, Celeste C. and Ray L. Ball. BODY SCORING SYSTEM FOR CAPTIVE GIRAFFE

(Giraffa camelopardis). PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WILDLIFE VETERINARIANS ASSOCIATION OF REPTILIAN AND

AMPHIBIAN VETERINARIANS JOINT CONFERENCE.ORLANDO, FLORIDA.SEPTEMBER 18-23,

2001. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

Kelly, J. D.; Boray, J. C., and Dixon, R. T. Fertile hydatid cysts in the

giraffe. Aust Vet J. 1968 Nov; 44(11):525.

 

Kelly, P. J.; Tagwira, M.; Matthewman, L.; Mason, P. R., and Wright, E. P.

Reactions of sera from laboratory, domestic and wild animals in Africa with

protein A and a recombinant chimeric protein AG. Comp Immunol Microbiol

Infect Dis. 1993 Oct; 16(4):299-305.

 

Kimani, J. K. and Mungai, J. M. Observations on the structure and innervation

of the presumptive carotid sinus area in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

Acta Anat (Basel). 1983; 115(2):117-33.

 

Kimani, J. K. and Opole, I. O. The structural organization and adrenergic

innervation of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis). Anat Rec. 1991 Jul; 230(3):369-77.

 

Kimani, J. K. Structural organization of the vertebral artery in the giraffe

(Giraffa camelopardalis). Anat Rec. 1987 Mar; 217(3):256-62.

 

Kimani, J. K. Subendothelial fibrillar laminae in the carotid arteries of the

giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Cell Tissue Res. 1981; 219(2):441-3.

 

Kimani, J. K.; Mbuva, R. N., and Kinyamu, R. M. Sympathetic innervation of the

hindlimb arterial system in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Anat Rec.

1991 Jan; 229(1):103-8.

 

Kimani, J. K.; Opole, I. O., and Ogeng'o, J. A. Structure and sympathetic

innervation of the intracranial arteries in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). J Morphol. 1991 May; 208(2):193-203.

 

Kimani, J.K. and I.O. Opole. 1991. The structural organization and adrenergic

innervation of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe. Anatomical Record,

230 (3):369-377.

 

 

Kimani, J.K., R.N. Mbuva and R.M. Kinyamu. 1991. Sympathetic innervation of

the hindlimb arterial system in the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Anatomical

Record, 229(1):103-108.

 

Kirkpatrick, Jay F.,Irwin K. M. Lin, John W. Turner, Jr.,Carrie A. Bickle.

CHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FERTILITY CONTROL IN WILDLIFE. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN

ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WILDLIFE

VETERINARIANS.Oakland Ca, Nov 15-19 1992. Editor: Randall E. Junge.

 

Kirkwood, James. Incidence, Causes, and Reduction of Neonatal Mortality in Zoo

Ungulates.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS. Chicago, Ill

November 1986. Editors: MS Silberman, Suzanne D. Silberman

 

Kok, O.B. 1986. Availability and food value of the most important food plants

of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus 1758) in the Willem Pretorius

Game Reserve, Orange Free State. Koedoe, 28:17-34.

 

Kok, O.B. and D.P.J. Opperman. 1980. Feeding behaviour of giraffe Giraffa

camelopardalis in the Wilhelm Pretorius Game Reserve, Orange Free State.

South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 10 (2):45-55. (in Afrikaans with

English summary)

 

Kombert, Mark, Della Garelle, Norman Armentrout, and Jason Bredahl. STANDING

CASTRATION IN A TWO-YEAR-OLD RETICULATED GIRAFFE(Camelopardalis reticulata).

PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OFZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE,

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN,OCTOBER 5-10, 2002.EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

Konig, H. E. [Osteology of the giraffe's skull]. Tierarztl Prax. 1983; 11(3):

405-15.

 

Kotani, H.; Ogata, M.; Koshimizu, K.; Tashiro, K., and Masui, M. Isolation of

Acholeplasma laidlawii from a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi)

and a mouflon (Ovis musimon). Vet Rec. 1982 Jan 2; 110(1):16.

 

Koulischer, L.; Tijskens, J., and Mortelmans, J. Mammalian cytogenetics. V.

The chromosomes of a female giraffe. Acta Zool Pathol Antverp. 1971 May; 52:

93-6.

 

Kozaki, M;Oura, R;Sekine, J.  Studies on digestion physiology of herbivorous

feral animals. 2. The comparison of intake of total digestible nutrients

among diverse sizes of ruminant and monogastric animals. Journal of the

Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University. 1991, VO- 27,  PP- 61-68

 

Krecek, R. C.; Boomker, J.; Penzhorn, B. L., and Scheepers, L. Internal

parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia. J Wildl Dis. 1990 Jul; 26(3):395-7.

 

Krecek, R.C., J. Boomker, B.L. Penzhorn and L. Scheepers. 1990. International

parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(3):395-397.

 

Krecek, RC;Boomker, J;Penzhorn, BL;Scheepers, L.  Internal parasites of

giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis)  from Etosha National Park,

Namibia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1990, VO- 26, NO- 3, PP- 395-397.

Kuschnarew, W.P. and F.I. Samigin. 1985. Role of nutrition in pathogenesis of

dermatoses and locomotor disorders in giraffe. Erkrankungen der Zootiere,

27:275-280.

 

Kuttler, K. L. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

J Wildl Dis. 1984 Jan; 20(1):12-20.

 

Kutzsch, V. and J.A.J. Nel. 1990. Possible thermoregulatory behaviour in

Giraffa camelopardalis. Zeitschrift fuer Sauegetierkunde, 551(1):60-62.

 

Kwon, SooWhan;Hwang, BumTae;Jeong, SoonWuk;Kweon, OhKyeong. Management of an

incomplete avulsion injury of the foot in a Masai giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis tippelskirchi). Korean Journal of Veterinary Clinical Medicine.

1997, VO- 14, NO- 1,PP- 118-122.

 

Lahkar, K., A, M. Bhattacharya and A. Chakraborty. 1992. Histomorphological

study on the tongue of the giraffe. Indian Veterinary Journal, 69(6):523-526.

 

Lahkar, K., A. Chakraborty and M. Bhattacharya. 1989. Gross anatomical

observations on the tongue of giraffe. Indian Veterinary Journal, 66(10):

954-957.

 

Lahkar, K;Bhattacharya, M;Chakraborty, A. Histomorphological study on the

tongue of giraffe. Indian Veterinary Journal. 1992, VO- 69, NO- 6, PP-

523-526

 

Lahkar, K;Chakraborty, A;Bhattacharya, M.  Gross anatomical observations on

the tongue of giraffe. Indian Veterinary Journal. 1989. VO- 66, NO- 10, PP-

954-957.

 

Langman, V. A.; Bamford, O. S., and Maloiy, G. M. Respiration and metabolism

in the giraffe. Respir Physiol. 1982 Nov; 50(2):141-52.

 

Langman, V. A.; Maloiy, G. M.; Schmidt-Nielsen, K., and Schroter, R. C. Nasal

heat exchange in the giraffe and other large mammals. Respir Physiol. 1979

Aug; 37(3):325-33.

Langman, V.A. 1973. The immobilization and capture of giraffe. South African

Journal of Science, 6 9(7):200-203.

 

Langman, V.A. 1978. Giraffe pica behavior and pathology as indicators of

mutritional stress. Journal of Wildlife Management, 42 (1):141-147.

 

Langman, V.A., G.M.O. Maloity, K. Schmidt-Nielsen and R.C. Schroter. 1979.

Nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large mammals. Respiration

Physiology, 37(3):325-333.

 

Langman, V.A., O.S. Bamford and G.M.O. Maloity. 1982. Respiration and

metabolism in the giraffe. Respiration Physiology, 50(2):141-152.

 

Lechowski, R.; Pisarski, J.; Goslawski, J., and Lenarcik, M. Exocrine

pancreatic insufficiency-like syndrome in giraffe. J Wildl Dis. 1991 Oct; 27(4):

728-30.

 

Lee, A.R. 1991. Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals: Giraffe.

London: Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, 23 pp.

 

Linton, R. A.; Taylor, P. M.; Linton, N. W.; Flach, E. J.; O'Brien, T. K.,

and Band, D. M. Cardiac output measurement in an anaesthetised giraffe. Vet

Rec. 1999 Oct 23; 145(17):498-9.

 

Liu, L.; Leaman, D. W., and Roberts, R. M. The interferon-tau genes of the

giraffe, a nonbovid species. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1996 Nov; 16(11):949-51.

 

Loskutoff, N.M., B.L. Raphael, C.G. Dorn, L.A. Nemec, P.P. Calle, A.M. Petric

and D.C. Kraemer. 1988. Comparative reproductive traits of the okapi and

giraffe: implications for intraspecific and intergeneric embryo transfer.

Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia, no. 80:29-41.

 

Loskutoff, N.M., Leslie Walker, Janis E. Ott-Joslin, Bonnie L. Raphael, and

Bill L. Lasley. Urinary Steroid Evaluations to Monitor Ovarian Function in

Exotic Ungulates: II. Comparison Between the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

and the Okapi (Okapi johnstoni). Zoo Biology. 5: 331-338. 1986.

 

Maluf NS. Kidney of giraffes. Nat Rec. 2002 Jun 1;267(2):94-111.

 

McCully, R. M.; Keep, M. E., and Basson, P. A. Cytauxzoonosis in a giraffe

(Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)) in Zululand. Onderstepoort J Vet

Res. 1970 Mar; 37(1):7-9.

 

McDermid, A.M. 1974. Pelvic tendon rupture in a male giraffe. American

Association of Zoological parks and Aquariums Regional Conference

Proceedings, pp. 181-182.

 

Meltzer, D.G.A., R. Burroughs, P.J. Stegman, A.R. Hargens, R.W. Millard,

K. Johansen, D.H. Gershuni, K. Pettersson, W. van Hoven. The capture and

Restraint of Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) for Blood and Interstitial

Fluid Pressure Studies.  Proceedings of The Soutrh African Association for

Laboratory Animal Science. Pretoria, R.S.A. pp.42-45. 

 

Meyer, H.H.D., Rowell, A., Streich, W.J., Stoffel, B., Hoffman, R.R.

Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by concentrate selecting

ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A, Physiology, 1998,

Vol.120, No.2, pp.263-268.

Miller, M.; Coville, B.; Abou-Madi, N., and Olsen, J. Comparison of in vitro

tests for evaluation of passive transfer of immunoglobulins in giraffe

(Giraffa camelopardalis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 1999 Mar; 30(1):85-93.

 

Miller,Michele, Martha Weber,Donald Neiffer,Barbara Mangold,Mark Stetter,

Deidre Fontenot,and P.K. Robbins. USE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PLASMA FOR

TRANSFUSION IN EXOTICUNGULATES.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO

VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN OCTOBER 5-10, 2002.

EDITOR: CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

Mitchell, G. and J.D. Skinner. 1993. How giraffes adapt to their extraordinary

shape. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 48(2):207-218.

 

Montastruc, J. L.; Senard, J. M.; Verwaerde, P., and Montastruc, P.

[Physiological mechanisms of cardiovascular adaptation to orthostatism. Role

of the sympathetic nervous system and pharmacological implications].

Therapie. 1994 Mar-1994 Apr 30; 49(2):81-7.

 

Murray, J. D. On pattern formation mechanisms for lepidopteran wing patterns

and mammalian coat markings. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1981 Oct 7;

295(1078):473-96.

 

Nakakuki, S. 1983. The bronchial ramifications and lobular division of the

giraffe lung. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 154(4):313-317.

 

Nakakuki, S. The bronchial ramification and lobular division of the giraffe

lung. Anat Anz. 1983; 154(4):313-7.

 

Nettleton, P. F. Pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle. Rev

Sci Tech. 1990 Mar; 9(1):131-50.

 

Neumann G, Gottschalk J, Eulenberger K, Grun E. The stability of progesterone

in feces of different wild animal species kept in a zoological garden. Dtsch

Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002 May; 109(5): 245-9.

 

Ngog, N.J. 1984. Diet of the giraffe in the Waza National Park, Cameroon.

Mammalia, 48 (2):173-183. (In French with English summary)

 

Nilsson, O.; Booj, S.; Dahlstrom, A.; Hargens, A. R.; Millard, R. W., and

Pettersson, K. S. Sympathetic innervation of the cardiovascular system in the giraffe. Blood Vessels. 1988; 25(6):299-307.

 

Nofs, Sally A., Timothy A. Reichard, and Wynona Shellabarger. TETANUS IN A

RETICULATED GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata):OBSERVATIONS AND

IMPLICATIONS AT THE TOLEDO ZOO.PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO

VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENCE. MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.OCTOBER 5-10, 2002.

EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

Norval, R. A.; Perry, B. D.; Meltzer, M. I.; Kruska, R. L., and Booth, T. H.

Factors affecting the distributions of the ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and A.

variegatum in Zimbabwe: implications of reduced acaricide usage. Exp Appl

Acarol. 1994 Jul; 18(7):383-407.

 

Okamato, M. Comparative digestibilty in several artificially fed herbivores.

J. Rakuno Gaken University, Natural Science, 1997, Vol. No.1, pp.155-157.

 

Okamato, M. J. Comparison of particle size in the feces of various herbivores.

Rakuno Gaken University, Natural Science, 1997, Vol. No.1, pp.151-153.

 

Parris, R., J.D. Roos and J.C.F. Heydenrych. 1983. Improved transport

technique for giraffe. Fauna Flora (Transvaal) 39:12-13.

 

Patterson, J. L. Jr; Goetz, R. H.; Doyle, J. T.; Warren, J. V.; Gauer, O. H.;

Detweiler, D. K.; Said, S. I.; Hoernicke, H.; McGregor, M.; Keen, E. N.;

Smith, M. H. Jr; Hardie, E. L.; Reynolds, M.; Flatt, W. P., and Waldo, D. R.

Cardiorespiratory dynamics in the ox and giraffe, with comparative

observations on man and other mammals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1965 Sep 8; 127(1):

393-413.

 

Pavlovic, I;Nesic, D;Savin, ;Valter, D;Hudina, V. Endoparasites of elephant

and giraffe in the Belgrade Zoological Garden. Veterinarski Glasnik. 1991,

VO 45, NO 10, PP- 749-751.

 

Pedley, T. J.; Brook, B. S., and Seymour, R. S. Blood pressure and flow rate

in the giraffe jugular vein. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996 Jul 29;

351(1342):855-66.

 

Pedley, T.J. 1987. How giraffes prevent oedema. Nature, 329:13-14.

 

Peinke, D. M. and Brown, C. R. Osmoregulation and water balance in the

springhare (Pedetes capensis). J Comp Physiol [B]. 1999 Feb; 169(1):1-10.

 

Pellew, R.A. 1983. The Giraffe and its food resource in the Serengeti. II.

Response of the giraffe population to changes in the food Supply. African

Journal of Ecology, 21 (4):283-309.

 

Pellew, R.A. 1984. Food consumption and energy budgets of the giraffe.

Journal of Applied Ecology, 21 (1):141-159.

 

Pellew, R.A. 1984. The feeding ecology of a selective browser, the giraffe

(Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi). Journal of Zoology, 202(1):57-81.

 

Peter, T. F.; Anderson, E. C.; Burridge, M. J., and Mahan, S. M.

Demonstration of a carrier state for Cowdria ruminantium in wild ruminants

from Africa. J Wildl Dis. 1998 Jul; 34(3):567-75.

 

Pol, J.M.A., D. Houwers, G.M. Dorrestein, A.H.M. Erken and P. Klaver. 1993.

Malignant catarrhal fever in captive giraffes. Erkandungen der Zootiere, 35:

51-56.

 

Prins, R.A. and M.A. Domhof. 1984. Feed intake and cell wall digestion by

okapi (Okapia johnstoni) and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) in

the zoo. Zoologische Garten, 54 (1/2):131-134.

 

Radcliffe, RM;Turner, TA;Radcliffe, CH;Radcliffe, RW. Arthroscopic surgery in

a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Journal of Zoo and

Wildlife Medicine. 1999. 30, 3:pp. 416-420.

 

Ralls, K., B. Lundrigan and K. Kranz. 1987. Mother-young relationships in

captive ungulates: behavioural changes over time. Ethology, 75(1):1-14.

 

Reason, R. Development of feeding behaviours in Giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis) calves at Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. Int. Zoo. Yb. (1995) 34:

222-224.

 

Reissig, D. [Electron miscroscopy studies of the chorion epithelium of

giraffe placenta]. Verh Anat Ges. 1977; (71 Pt 1):493-8.

 

Rewell, R. E. Vascular system of the giraffe. Nature. 1987 Oct 15-1987 Oct 21;

329(6140):589.

 

Richner, S. M.; Meiring, J., and Kirby, R. A study of the genetic diversity

of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients in the eastern province

of South Africa using random amplified polymorphic DNA profiling.

Electrophoresis. 1997 Aug; 18(9):1570-6.

 

Richter, J. [The facultative bipedy of the giraffe gazelle Litocranius walleri

sclateri Neumann 1899 (Mam. Bovidae), a contribution to the functional

morphology]. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb. 1970; 114(4):457-541.

 

Rickman, L. R.; Ernest, A.; Kanyangala, S., and Kunda, E. Human serum

sensitivities of Trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the

Luangwa Valley, Zambia. East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov; 68(11):880-92.

 

Ridewood, W.G. 1904. Some observations on the skull of the giraffe.

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 150-157.

 

Robinson, H.G.N, et al. 1965. Notes on the birth of a reticulated giraffe,

Giraffa camelopardalis antiquorum. International Zoo Yearbook, 5:49-52.

 

Ronda, G. J.; Gaastra, W., and Beintema, J. J. Steady-state enzyme kinetics

Of the pancreatic ribonucleases from five mannalian species. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 May 13; 429(3):853-9.

 

Rossof, A. H. An electrocardiographic study of the giraffe. Am Heart J. 1972

Jan; 83(1):142-3.

 

Roy, R. R.; Graham, S., and Peterson, J. A. Fiber type composition of the

plantarflexors of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal

stages of development. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 1988; 91(2):347-52.

 

Roy, R.R., S. Graham and J.A. Peterson. 1988. Fiber composition of the

plantarflexors of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal

stages of development. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Comparative

Physiology, 91(2):347-352.

 

Saha, GR;Mitra, M;Nandi, PR;Biswas, BD;Bhowmik, MK.  Knuckling at the fetlock

in a new born giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) calf and its

management. Indian Journal of Animal Health. 1998,VO- 37,NO- 1,PP- 57-58

 

Sasaki M, Endo H, Kogiku H, Kitamura N, Yamada J, Yamamoto M, Arishima K,

Hayashi Y. The structure of the masseter muscle in the giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis). Anat Histol Embryol. 2001 Oct; 30(5): 313-9.

 

Sasaki, J.; Sugawara, S.; Saito, K., and Fujishima, Y. [The Sistrunk median

cervical cyst operation using a cecal foramen pointer]. Nippon Geka Gakkai

Zasshi. 1990 Jun; 91(6):713-7.

 

Savage, B. 1985. Giraffe restraint. American Association of Zoological Park

and Aquarium Regional Conference Proceedings, 48-50.

 

Savoy, J.C. 1966. Breeding and handrearing of the giraffe Giraffa

camelopardalis at Columbus Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 6:202-204.

 

Schedin, U.; Roken, B. O.; Nyman, G.; Frostell, C., and Gustafsson, L. E.

Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species. Acta

Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997 Oct; 41(9):1133-41.

 

Schrieber, G.R. 1982. Report of a traumatic fall of a female reticulated

giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). American Association of

Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings, 344-345.

 

Schwierin, B. and I. Tobler. 1994. Behavioral sleep in the giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis) in captivity. Journal of Sleep Research, 3 (supplement), 232.

 

Shepherd, A. J.; Swanepoel, R.; Shepherd, S. P.; McGillivray, G. M., and

Searle, L. A. Antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild

mammals from southern Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jan; 36(1):133-42.

 

Shoho, C. and Sachs, R. On two filarioid worms, Setaria labiatopapillosa and

Pseudofilaria giraffae n. sp., from the East African giraffe. Tropenmed

Parasitol. 1975 Dec; 26(4):489-93.

 

Skinner, J.D. and A.J. Hall-Martin, 1975. A note on foetal growth and

development of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Journal of Zoology,

177:73-79.

 

Smith, E. W.; Haigh, J. M., and Walker, R. B. Analysis of chromameter results

obtained from corticosteroid-induced skin blanching. I: Manipulation of data.

Pharm Res. 1998 Feb; 15(2):280-5.

 

Snyder, S. Bret * Michael J. Richard, Timothy J. Hanosh, and Ralph S.Zimmerman.

MANAGEMENT OF A DISTAL METATARSAL FRACTURE IN A GIRAFFE(Giraffa

camelopardalis).PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL

CONFERENC Houston TX Oct 26-30, 1997. EDITOR:CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER.

 

Snyder, S. Bret,and Michael J. Richard. GIRAFFE DYSTOCIA: A RETROSPECTIVE

SURVEY AND FOUR POSTERIOR PRESENTATION CASES. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN

ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS ANNUAL CONFERENC Houston TX Oct 26-30, 1997.

EDITOR: CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER

 

Solounias, N. and N. Tang. 1990. The two types of cranial appendages in

Giraffa camelopardalis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla). Journal of Zoology, 222(2):

293-302.

 

Spinage, C.A. 1968. Horns and other bony structures of the skull of the

giraffe, and their functional significance. East African Wildlife Journal, 6:

53-61.

 

Stafford, K. J. and Stafford, Y. M. The anatomy of the omasum of some Zambian

game species. Anat Histol Embryol. 1993 Dec; 22(4):342-7.

 

Staton, J. 1955. Is the giraffe mute? Natural History. 64: (3): 128-129.

 

Stickland, N. C. Comparative aspects of muscle fibre size and succinic

dehydrogenase distribution in the longissimus dorsi muscle of several species of East African mammals. Acta Anat (Basel). 1979; 105(4):381-5.

 

Strafuss, A. C. and Kennedy, G. A. Degenerative myopathy in a giraffe. J Am

Vet Med Assoc. 1973 Sep 15; 163(6):551-2.

 

Tang, ChaoZhong;Wei, ZeZhen;Chao, QingXian;Ban, QiZheng;Wang, JianMin.

Diagnosis and measurement of mineral elements in a giraffe with osteomalacia.

Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology.1997,VO- 27,NO- 1. PP-

45-46.

 

Teare, J.A., French, J.A. Serum progesterone concentrations in captive

giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Proceedings of the American Association of

Zoo Veterinarains. Louisiville, Kentucky, October 15-18, 1984.

 

Thuroff, J. W.; Hort, W., and Lichti, H. Diameter of coronary arteries in 36

species of mammalian from mouse to giraffe. Basic Res Cardiol. 1984 Mar-1984

Apr 30; 79(2):199-206.

 

Tobler, I. and Schwierin, B. Behavioural sleep in the giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis) in a zoological garden. J Sleep Res. 1996 Mar; 5(1):21-32.

 

Tsuji, S.; Kato, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Nanjoh, I.; Amano, T., and

Namikawa, T. Phylogenetical and ontogenetical studies on the molecular weight

heterogeneity of bovine serum transferrin. Biochem Genet. 1984 Dec; 22(11-12):

1127-43.

 

Vahala, J. 1990. Experiences with immobilization of giraffes (Giraffa

camelopardalis) in captivity. Veterinarstvi, 40(7):321-323.

 

Van Citters, R. L.; Franklin, D. L.; Vatner, S. F.; Patrick, T., and Warren,

J. V. Cerebral hemodynamics in the giraffe. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1969;

82:293-304.

 

Van Citters, R. L.; Kemper, W. S., and Franklin, D. L. Blood flow and pressure

in the giraffe carotid artery. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1968 Mar; 24(3):1035-42.

 

van Hoven, W. and Furstenburg, D. The use of purified condensed tannin as a

reference in determining its influence on rumen fermentation. Comp Biochem

Physiol Comp Physiol. 1992 Feb; 101(2):381-5.

 

van Rijn, P. A.; van Gennip, H. G.; Leendertse, C. H.; Bruschke, C. J.; Paton,

D. J.; Moormann, R. J., and van Oirschot, J. T. Subdivision of the pestivirus

genus based on envelope glycoprotein E2. Virology. 1997 Oct 27; 237(2):337-48.

Van Soest, Peter J. Allometry and Ecology of Feeding Behavior and Digestive

Capacity in Herbivores: A Review. Zoo Biology. 15: 455-479 (1996).

 

Van-Hoven, W. 1982. Digestive efficiency of various diets in giraffe with

comparisons to some other African ungulates. Proceedings of the Annual Dr.

Scholl Conference on the Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals, 2:670-81.

 

Veasey, V.S., N.K. Waran, and R.J. Young. On Comparing the Behaviourof Zoo

Housed Animals with Wild Conspecifics as a Welfare Indicator, Using the

Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) as a Model. Animal Welfare. 1996, 5: 139-153.

 

Velhankar, D. P.; Hukeri, V. B.; Deshpande, B. R., and Sane, C. R. Biometry

of the genitalia and the spermatozoa of a male giraffe. Indian Vet J. 1973

Aug; 50(8):789-92.

 

Vogelnest, L. and Ralph, H. K. Chemical immobilisation of giraffe to

facilitate short procedures. Aust Vet J. 1997 Mar; 75(3):180-2.

 

W. van Hoven and D. Furstenburg. The use of purified condensed tannin as a

reference in determining its influence on rumen fermantation. Comp. Biochem.

Physiol. Vol.101A. No.2, pp.381-385. 1992.

 

Walker, J. B. and Laurence, B. R. Margaropus wileyi sp. nov. (ixodoidea,

Ixodidae), a new species of tick from the reticulated giraffe. Onderstepoort

J Vet Res. 1973 Mar; 40(1):13-21.

 

Walker, M. L. and Becklund, W. W. Occurrence of a cattle eyeworm, Thelazia

gulosa (Nematoda: Thelaziidae), in an imported giraffe in California and T.

lacrymalis in a native horse in Maryland. J Parasitol. 1971 Dec; 57(6):1362-3.

 

Walsh, C.R. 1988. The restraint and loading of a Baringo giraffe, Giraffa

camelopardalis rothschildi, at Zoo Atlanta. American Association of

Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 280-284.

 

Warren, J. V. The physiology of the giraffe. Sci Am. 1974 Nov; 231(5):96-100,

105.

 

Warren, J.V. 1974. Physiology of the giraffe. Scientific American, 231 (5):

96-105.

 

Waruiru, RM;Mbuthia, PG;Njiro, SM;Ngatia, TA;Weda, EH;Ngotho, JW; Kanyari,

PN;Munyua, WK. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild

and  domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal

Health and Production in Africa. 1995, VO- 43, NO- 4, PP- 253-259.

 

 

 

Weber, Martha A., Deidre K. Fontenot, Michele A. Miller, Donald L. Neiffer,

Geoffrey W. Pye, P. K. Robbins, and Mark Stetter. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF

THE USE OF COPPER OXIDE WIRE PARTICLES TO CONTROL Haemonchus contortus IN

EXOTIC ARTIODACTYLS. PROCEEDINGS AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS

ANNUAL CONFERENCE. MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.OCTOBER 5-10, 2002. EDITOR: CHARLOTTE

KIRK BAER.

 

Wesonga, D.F., Mukolwe, S.W., and Grootenhuis, J.G. 1992. Evaluation of the

giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)as reservoir of Cowdria ruminantium. In:

First International Conference on Tick-borne Pathogens at the Host-Vector

Interface, Saint Paul, Minnesota, September 15-18, pp. 306.

Wesonga, F. D.; Mukolwe, S. W., and Rurangirwa, F. Cowdria ruminantium

identified in Amblyomma gemma using a DNA probe pCS20. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays

Trop. 1993; 46(1-2):179-81.

 

Wienker, W. 1983. Giraffe squeeze cage for hoof-trimming at Woodland Park Zoo.

International Zoo News, 30(4):9-12.

 

Wienker, W. 1985. Giraffe squeeze procedure - conditioning as a tool in

giraffe management. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums

Regional Conference Proceedings, 129-130.

 

Wienker, W. 1986. Giraffe squeeze cage procedure. Zoo Biology, 5(4):371-377.

 

Wiesner, H. and von Hegel, G. [The immobilization of giraffes]. Tierarztl

Prax. 1989; 17(1):97-100.

 

Williamson, J. R.; Vogler, N. J., and Kilo, C. Regional variations in the

width of the basement membrane of muscle capillaries in man and giraffe. Am J

Pathol. 1971 May; 63(2):359-70.

 

Williamson, W. M. and Wallach, J. D. M.99-induced recumbency and analgesia in

a giraffe. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1968 Oct 1; 153(7):816-7.

 

Wolfe, B. A. Obstructive urolithiasis in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa

camelopardalis reticulata). Vet Rec. 2000 Feb 26; 146(9):260-1.

 

Wolfe, B. A.; Sladky, K. K., and Loomis, M. R. Obstructive urolithiasis in a

reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Vet Rec. 2000 Feb 26;

146(9):260-1.

 

Young KE, Jensen JM, Craig TM.Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive

wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000 Sep; 31(3): 348-52.

 

 

Young, E, Basson, PA, and KE Weiss. 1970. Experimental Infection of Game

Animals with lumpy skin disease virus prototype strain Neethling. Onder. J.

Vet. Res. 37, (2), 79-88.

 

Young, E. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer and Linguatula Sp.) infestations of wild

animals in the Kruger National Park. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1975 Dec; 46(4):335-6.

 

Young, T.P. and L.A. Isbell. 1991. Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology:

energetics and social constraints. Ethology, 87(1-2):79-89.

 

Zellmer, G. 1960. Handrearing of giraffe at Bristol Zoo. International Zoo

Yearbook, 2:90-93.

Zhu, ChaoJun. The prevention and cure of giraffe infected by Trichostrongylus

colubriformis. Chinese Journal of Zoonoses. 1996. VO- 12,NO- 1. PP- 55-56.

 

Zhu, ChaoJun;Zhao, GuanLu.  Study on the comprehensive control of

Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in Giraffa camelopardalis. Chinese

Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 1998, VO24, NO 9. PP- 7-8

 

Zuniga, G.; Torres-Bugarin, O.; Ramirez-Munoz, M. P.; Ramos, A.; Fanti-

Rodriguez, E.; Portilla, E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.; Cantu, J. M.; Gallegos-

Arreola, M. P., and Sanchez-Corona, J. Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral

blood erythrocytes from 35 mammalian species. Mutat Res. 1996 Jul 10;

369(1-2):123-7.

 

Location

581705 White Oak Road
Yulee, FL 32097 USA

Contact Us

Local: (904) 225-3275
Fax: (904) 225-3289
Email:Admin@AAZV.org