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jzwm_chineseabstract_v38n2_2007

Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 

Volume 38, Issue 2

Abstracts 
 

Pages 169-176 

MORTALITY OF CAPTIVE BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) AT SMITHSONIAN’S NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, 1989-2004 

Ellen Bronson, med. vet., Mitchell Bush, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Tabitha Viner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Suzan Murray, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Samantha M. Wisely, Ph.D., and Sharon L. Deem, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) mortality was investigated retrospectively based on the pathology records of 107 captive animals held at Smithsonian’s National Zoological Park from 1989 – 2004. The majority of deaths in neonates were due to cannibalism (n = 42; 64.6 %) and maternal trauma (n = 11; 16.9 %); both of these causes of mortality decreased during the study period.  Prior to 2001, juvenile mortality was most often caused by gastrointestinal disease (n = 11; 52.4 %), including coccidiosis, salmonellosis, and clostridium infection. In 2001, improvements in husbandry, hygiene, and medical treatment led to decreases in juvenile mortality associated with gastrointestinal disease. The most common causes of death in adult ferrets were renal or neoplastic disease. The etiology of the high prevalence of renal disease in the last four years of the study is unknown; it was not associated with increasing age or inbreeding. Improved hygiene and vigilant monitoring for signs of gastrointestinal and renal disease will continue to improve the success of the captive propagation of this species. 

Key words:  Black-footed ferret, coccidiosis, mortality, Mustela nigripes, neoplasia, renal disease. 

1989 年至2004 年間美國斯密桑拿國家動物園內圈養黑足貂(Mustela nigripes)的死亡率探討 

Ellen Bronson, med. vet., Mitchell Bush, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Tabitha Viner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Suzan Murray, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Samantha M. Wisely, Ph.D., and Sharon L. Deem, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M.

    針對美國斯密桑拿國家動物園,1989 年至2004 年間,107 隻圈養黑足貂的病理記錄,來調查黑足貂的死亡原因。出生幼獸的主要死亡原因為同類相殘(n = 42; 64.6 %) 及母獸的傷害 (n = 11; 16.9 %)。但這兩項原因,於研究期間皆有下降的趨勢。在2001年以前,幼獸的死亡原因大多是胃腸道疾病 (n = 11; 52.4 %),包括了球蟲症、沙門氏菌症、梭狀菌感染。在2001 年,由於飼養管理、環境衛生及醫療的改善,使得幼獸因胃腸道死亡的情形減少。成年黑足貂的死亡原因,最常見的是腎臟及腫瘤的問題。在研究期的後四年,成年個體有較高的腎病罹患率,但病因並不清楚,且此現象與年齡的增加,或是近親繁殖無關。衛生的改善及經常性的監控胃腸道及腎臟疾病將會持續,才能改善此物種圈養族群的維繫。 

關鍵字:黑足貂(Mustela nigripes),球蟲,死亡率,腫瘤,腎病。 

臺北市立動物園余珍芳獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 177-191 

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN THE AMAZON AND ORINOCO RIVER DOLPHIN (INIA GEOFFRENSIS) IN CAPTIVITY 

Christopher J. Bonar, V.M.D, Ernesto O. Boede, D.V.M., Manuel García Hartmann, D.V.M, Joanne Lowenstein-Whaley, D.V.M., Esmeralda Mujica - Jorquera, Scott D. Parish, James V. Parish, Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Cynthia K. Stadler, D.V.M.  

Abstract:  River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences on river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records, and necropsy and histopathology reports, on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were reviewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied, and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first two months immediately post-capture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44/105 (42%) and 38/105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively.  At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component.  Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include: 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts; in compatible groups; and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) an proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate post-capture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. 

Key words: Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, captivity, pathology, mortality. 

回溯性研究圈養亞馬遜河豚(Inia geoffrensis)病理學發現 

Christopher J. Bonar, V.M.D, Ernesto O. Boede, D.V.M., Manuel García Hartmann, D.V.M, Joanne Lowenstein-Whaley, D.V.M., Esmeralda Mujica - Jorquera, Scott D. Parish, James V. Parish, Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Cynthia K. Stadler, D.V.M.

摘要:河豚對人類負面衝擊特別敏感。保育上為了避免滅絕,未來進行移置或域外繁殖是很重要的。人工圈養管理上的知識與醫療經驗有助於保育上的努力。回顧123隻圈養亞馬遜河豚的醫療記錄、解剖與病理組織報告記錄, 其中105隻進行解剖,70隻進行組織病理學檢查,18隻未進行解剖。野外出生的個體,在捕捉與運輸後兩個月內的死亡率最高,在123隻死亡案例中,佔了32隻。肺炎與皮膚病變(表皮與皮下潰瘍與膿瘍)最為常見,肉眼診斷下分別有44/105(42%)38/105(36%)。在44例肺炎病例中,至少有10例肉眼上發現寄生蟲。導因於不同病因的惡體質,在21例中為主要的肉眼病變。14例從組織病理學上確診為腎病, 而且是其中13例的主要死因。18例發現有肝病變,16例透過組織學證實為細菌性敗血症。基於這些發現所得結論,要成功維持這個物種的關鍵:1.捕捉後立即進行預防性驅蟲與抗生素治療。2.相較於過去曾經嘗試的方式,提供較大的飼養場地給相容的個體,且可以隔開較強勢的個體。3.將動物飼養於隨時維持微生物穩定的水質中。4. 前瞻性的預防性投藥計畫,一旦動物在被捕捉後、檢疫與圈養的期間即執行。 
 
關鍵字:亞馬遜河豚(Inia geoffrensis),圈養,病理學,死亡率。 

臺北市立動物園賴燕雪獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 192-200 

RADIOGRAPHIC Evaluation of Cardiac Size in FLYING FOX SPECIES

(PTEROPUS RODRICENSUS, p. HYPOMELANUS, AND p. VAMPYRUS). 

Antonia Gardner, B.S., D.V.M., Margret S. Thompson, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.R., Deidre Fontenot, D.V.M, Nicole Gibson, Ph.D., and Darryl J. Heard, B.V.M.S., Ph.D, Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

abstract:  Dilated cardiomyopathy is a relatively common pathology in captive flying foxes (Pteropus spp.). The goal of this study was to establish quantitative reference range measurements that could be used to support a diagnosis of cardiac disease in these animals.  Lateral and ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs from apparently healthy flying foxes (n = 66) of three species (Rodriguez island flying fox, P. rodricensis, n = 18; small island flying fox, P. hypomelanus, n =16; and Malaysian flying fox, P. vampyrus, n = 32) were evaluated objectively to describe the cardiac appearance. Absolute and relative cardiac dimensions were also measured.  The same methods were used to evaluate radiographs from flying foxes (n = 9) with known dilated or acute cardiomyopathy.  The following ratios were most appropriate for categorizing normal cardiac silhouette size. In the ventrodorsal projection, heart width to thoracic width and heart width to clavicle length were the preferred measurements. In the lateral projection, heart width compared to thoracic height was the preferred measurement.  From radiographs of the bats with known dilated and acute cardiomyopathy, the apicobasilar heart length compared to thoracic height and heart width compared to thoracic height on lateral films were the most sensitive ratios for diagnosing cardiomegaly. 

Key words: Cardiac measurement, cardiomyopathy, megachiroptans, Pteropus spp., radiology. 

以放射線影像評估狐蝠心臟的尺寸 

Antonia Gardner, B.S., D.V.M., Margret S. Thompson, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.R., Deidre Fontenot, D.V.M, Nicole Gibson, Ph.D., and Darryl J. Heard, B.V.M.S., Ph.D, Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要:擴大性心肌病在圈養的狐蝠,是相當常見的病理現象。此研究的目的,在建立形質上的測量參考值,使得以應用於此種動物心臟病的診斷。66隻共三種(羅郡庫茲島狐蝠 P. rodricensis, 18隻, 小島狐蝠 P. hypomelanus, 16 隻,及馬來西亞狐蝠 P. vampyrus, 32 隻)外觀上健康的狐蝠,經胸腔放射線側面及胸腹照的影像,用此來估算心臟的外觀。絕對的與相對的心臟尺寸也進行測量。相同的放射線影像評估方法,也用於已知患有擴大性或急性心肌病的狐蝠。下列的計算比值是最適合用來歸類正常的心臟輪廓及尺寸:在腹背照影像中,心臟的寬度對胸寬度及心臟的寬度對鎖骨長度的比值,是最佳的測量法;在側照的影像中,心臟的寬度對胸高度的比值是最佳的測量法。從已知患有擴大性及急性心肌病之狐蝠放射線影像中,從側照的影像,心尖至基底部之心長度對胸腔高度,及心臟寬度對胸高度之比值,在診斷心臟擴大是最敏感有效的方法。 

關鍵字:心臟測量,心肌病,狐蝠(Pteropus spp.),放射線學。 

臺北市立動物園余珍芳獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

 

Pages 201-216 

Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in three habitats at the Beza MahAfaly Special Reserve, Madagascar 

David S. Miller, M.S., D.V.M., Michelle L. Sauther, M.A., Ph.D., Mandala Hunter-Ishikawa, M.S., Krista Fish, M.A., Heather Culbertson, D.V.M., Frank P. Cuozzo, M.A., Ph.D., Terry W. Campbell, D.V.M., Ph.D., Gordon A. Andrews, Ph.D., D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. ACVP, Patricia Sue Chavey, Ph.D., B.S., M.T. (ASCP), Raymond Nachreiner, D.V.M., Ph.D., Wilson Rumbeiha, B.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.B.T., Dipl. A.B.V.T., Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Ph.D, and Michael R. Lappin, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M. 

Abstract:  Complete physical examinations and biomedical sample collection were performed on 70 free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from three different habitats in the Beza Mahfaly Special Reserve (BMSR), in southern Madagascar, to assess the impact of humans and habitat on lemur health. Lemurs were chemically immobilized with ketamine and diazepam administered via blow darts for concurrent biomedical, morphometric, and behavioral studies. Subsets of the animals had blood analyzed for hematology, serum chemistry, micronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D and E), measures of iron metabolism, and polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) for Toxoplasma gondii, Hemoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Neorickettsia risticii. Results were compared on the basis of gender and the habitats at the study site: Reserve (intact gallery forest), Degraded (human inhabited and altered), and Marginal (dry didieracea forest with heavy grazing and tree cutting). Vitamin D, triglyceride, cholesterol, and measures of iron metabolism for BMSR lemurs were greater than those previously reported for a free-ranging lemur population (Tsimanampetsotsa Strict Nature Reserve, Madagascar) with less access to foods of anthropogenic origin. BMSR ring-tailed lemurs from habitat with less water (Marginal) had higher sodium (P = 0.051), chloride (P = 0.045), osmolality (P = 0.010), and amylase (P = 0.05) levels, suggesting that these lemurs were less hydrated. Vitamin D levels of male lemurs were higher (P = 0.011) than those of females at BMSR, possibly due to differences in sunning behavior or differential selection of food items. The biological significance is uncertain for other parameters with statistically significant differences. All samples tested (n = 20) were negative for the pathogens tested using PCR assays. Continued concurrent biomedical and ecological research is needed at BMSR to confirm these results and determine their association with population mortality and fecundity rates. 

Key words:  Ring-tailed lemur, free-ranging, Lemur catta, health, habitat, gender. 

馬達加斯加島貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區三個棲息地中野生之環尾狐猴生物醫學的評估 

David S. Miller, M.S., D.V.M., Michelle L. Sauther, M.A., Ph.D., Mandala Hunter-Ishikawa, M.S., Krista Fish, M.A., Heather Culbertson, D.V.M., Frank P. Cuozzo, M.A., Ph.D., Terry W. Campbell, D.V.M., Ph.D., Gordon A. Andrews, Ph.D., D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. ACVP, Patricia Sue Chavey, Ph.D., B.S., M.T. (ASCP), Raymond Nachreiner, D.V.M., Ph.D., Wilson Rumbeiha, B.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.B.T., Dipl. A.B.V.T., Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Ph.D, and Michael R. Lappin, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M. 

摘要:從馬達加斯加島之貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區,三種不同棲息地中,抽樣採集70 隻野生的環尾狐猴,進行完整的生理學及血清化學檢查,以了解人類的衝擊及不同棲息地對狐猴健康的影響。狐猴以吹箭注射給予克太明及煩寧,在化學麻醉保定後,同時進行生物醫學、形態學及行為學的研究。綜合檢測的項目包括:血液學、血清生化、微量營養素、脂溶性維生素(維生素ADE)、測量鐵的代謝率及以聚合脢連鎖反應法,檢測弓蟲(Toxoplasma gondii)、血漿蟲(Hemoplasma spp)、血巴東體(Bartonella spp)、艾利西氏體(Ehrlichia spp.)、血球邊蟲(Anaplasma phagocytophilum)、立氏埃立克體(Neorickettsia risticii)。檢驗的結果依性別及研究區域內不同棲地環境:保留區(完整的森林)、開發區(人類居住及開發的棲地)、邊緣區(乾燥平緩卻經過度放牧或伐木的森林)。貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區之狐猴,在維生素D 、三酸肝油脂、膽固醇的結果數據,與早期報告中野生且較少接觸源自於人類的食物之狐猴族群(馬達加斯加Tsimanampetsotsa自然保留區)有較高的數值。貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區中,居住於水源較少區域(邊緣區)之狐猴,有較高之血中鈉離子(P = 0.051)、血中氯離子(P = 0.045)、血液滲透壓(P = 0.010)及澱粉分解脢(P = 0.05);此現象可視為這些狐猴個體體內水份不足。在貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區中,公狐猴之維生素D 數值,較母狐猴高(P = 0.011),可能是由於日光浴習性的差異,或是選擇食物種類上的差異。其他在統計學上有顯著差異的參數,在生物學上的重要性還不能確定。所有對病原聚合脢連鎖反應檢測的樣本(n = 20),結果均為陰性。持續性的生物醫學及生態學的研究,是非常需要的,有助於釐清在貝扎曼哈佛里特別保留區中的狐猴族群,這些檢測結果與族群的死亡率及繁殖率的關聯性。 

關鍵字:環尾狐猴(Lemur catta),野生,健康,棲地,性別 

臺北市立動物園余珍芳獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 217-221 

Short-term Biological Variation of Clinical Chemical values in Dumeril’s Monitors (Varanus dumerili) 

Mads F. Bertelsen, D.V.M., D.V.Sc., Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jennifer R. Howell, R.V.T., and Graham J. Crawshaw, B. Vet. Med., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  Plasma biochemical values are routinely used in the medical management of ill reptiles; and for monitoring the health of clinically normal animals. Laboratory tests, including clinical biochemical values, are subject to biological and analytical variation, the magnitude of which determines the utility of population-based reference ranges for the detection of abnormal results in the individual animal. Nested analysis of variance of repeated measurements allows the variance to be broken into within-individual, between-individual, and analytical variation. When the within-individual variation is large and the inter-individual variation is low, a sample may be accurately classified as normal or abnormal based on a population-based reference interval. Conversely, if the intra-individual variation is low and the inter-individual variation high, population-based reference intervals are of limited value as the ranges for an individual encompass only a part of the conventional reference interval. Between-lizard, within-lizard, and analytical components of variance were assessed by nested analysis of variance for 16 commonly measured plasma biochemical parameters in 8 healthy adult Dumeril’s monitors (Varanus dumerili). Albumin, cholesterol, phosphate, calcium, sodium, and total protein demonstrated levels of individuality suggesting that comparison of a single measurement to a conventional population-based reference range may be too insensitive to detect small but significant alterations in the value for that animal. Only for potassium and AST did the index of individuality suggest that the use of reference values may be warranted. Uric acid, globulin, glucose and amylase fell in a grey zone where population-based ranges should be used with caution. The critical difference indicates the difference between two consecutive analytical results that may be safely ascribed to natural variation. In the present study critical difference varied from 7% and 11% respectively for sodium and chloride to 75% and 125% for uric acid and AST.        

Key words: Dumeril’s monitor, Varanus dumerili, clinical biochemistry, biological variation, critical difference, index of individuality. 

杜氏巨蜥臨床化學數值的短期生物變異

Mads F. Bertelsen, D.V.M., D.V.Sc., Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jennifer R. Howell, R.V.T., and Graham J. Crawshaw, B. Vet. Med., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要:血漿生化值常被用於管理生病的爬蟲類,及監測臨床診斷正常之動物的健康,而實驗結果,包括臨床生化值本身,皆容易出現生物上及分析上的變異,變異之幅度通常用以決定一個族群研究該使用多大的族群數做為參考區間,範圍為何,以判斷一個個體是否正常。重覆利用巢狀分析法測量變異數可將變異種類細分為三-個體內變異、個體間變異以及分析上之變異。當個體內之變異大、個體間之變異低時,受測樣本基於有效之族群數參考區間,可準確地被分類為正常或不正常;反之,如果個體內之變異低、個體間之變異高時,族群數區間的參考價值顯得有限,因為在個體間差異大的情況下,每一個區間裡的差異範圍都可能只是更大區間的一部分。本研究從8隻健康的杜氏巨蜥成體,測量16個常見的血漿生化參數,利用巢狀變異數分析法評估巨蜥個體間、個體內和分析要素之變異,利用白蛋白、膽固醇、磷酸鹽、鈣、鈉和總蛋白其顯示個體性的程度,發現單用其中一個測量值對照常見的族群數參考區間,將無法敏感地偵測出個體上細微,但重要的變化。只有鉀和AST適合做為個體特徵的指標,而尿酸、球蛋白、葡萄糖和澱粉酵素則屬於灰色地帶,在使用時需特別注意。臨界差異是指連續兩個分析結果的差異,可安全地歸因於自然變異。以目前研究成果而言,臨界差異指鈉介於7%11%、氯化物達75%,而尿酸和AST125% 

關鍵字:杜氏巨蜥(Varanus dumerili),臨床生化,生物學變異,臨界差異,個體參數

臺北市立動物園謝欣怡翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 222-230 

QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, AND HISTOLOGIC IMAGE ANALYSIS OF HEPATIC IRON ACCUMULATION IN PIGEONS (COLUMBIA LIVIA)

Jodi S. Matheson, DVM, Joanne Paul-Murphy, DVM, Dipl. ACZM, Robert T. O’Brien MS, DVM, Dipl. ACVR, and Howard Steinberg, DVM, Dipl. ACVP 

Abstract:  Iron overload was induced by i.v. iron dextran in clinically healthy adult pigeons, Columbia livia, (n=8). Hemosiderosis was induced in all treated birds.  Two control pigeons received no iron injections.  Pigeons did not show clinical signs of iron overload during the 6 wk study. Ultrasound examination of the liver in the pigeons receiving iron dextran was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42.  No ultrasound images were collected on the control pigeons.   Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42 on all study pigeons and imaging sequences were collected in three different imaging formats: T1, T2, and gradient recalled echo (GRE). Surgical liver biopsies were performed on pigeons receiving iron dextran on days 2, 16 and 45 (at necropsy).  A single liver sample was collected at necropsy from the control birds. Histologic examination, quantitative image analysis, and tissue iron analysis by thin layer chromatography were performed on each liver sample and compared to the imaging studies. Although hemosiderosis was confirmed histologically in each experimental pigeon, no significant change in pixel intensity of the ultrasound images was seen at any point in the study. Signal intensity, in all MRI formats, significantly decreased in a linear fashion as the accumulation of iron increased.  

Key words: Avian, hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis, iron, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound. 

以定量超音波、核磁共振造影及組織影像分析鴿(COLUMBIA LIVIA )肝臟鐵質的沉積

Jodi S. Matheson, DVM, Joanne Paul-Murphy, DVM, Dipl. ACZM, Robert T. O’Brien MS, DVM, Dipl. ACVR, and Howard Steinberg, DVM, Dipl. ACVP 

摘要:利用葡萄糖鐵輸液,誘發八隻在臨床健康的成年鴿子(Columbia livia),出現鐵過量。同時所有的個體,都發生血鐵沉著症。兩隻未接受鐵劑注射的鴿子為對照組。鴿子在六週的研究期內,皆未呈現鐵過量的臨床症狀。在鴿子接受葡萄糖鐵注射的第0, 13, 28, 42天,利用超音波檢查肝臟。對照組則未接受超音波檢查。所有的鴿子在第0, 13, 28, 42天,都接受核磁共振影像(MRI)的檢查,並將影像序列以三種不同的模式T1 T2、梯度迴音反射(gradient recalled echo) 收集儲存。鴿子在接受鐵劑後的第2, 16以外科生檢肝臟,以及第45天時進行病理解剖。對照組,在解剖時也收集了一個肝臟樣本。每一個肝臟樣本都進行組織學檢驗、定量影像分析、組織鐵薄層色析法分析,並與影像的研究進行比較。雖然每隻實驗鴿子在組織學上都發現有血鐵沉著,但在研究的任一階段,超音波影像的強度都沒有明顯變化。所有的MRI影像強度,在鐵沉積增加時,顯著的呈現線性降低。

  

關鍵詞:鳥類,血色沉著症,血鐵沉著症,鐵,核磁共振造影,超音波。 

臺北市立動物園王寶容獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 231-239  

SURVEY OF NEOPLASIA IN RED KANGAROOS (MACROPUS RUFUS), 1992-2002, IN A ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION

Wm. Kirk Suedmeyer, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Gayle Johnson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract:  An increase in the proportion of cases with neoplasia observed in a collection of captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) when compared to historical records and the paucity of reported neoplasms in kangaroos in the literature prompted a 10 yr review of all red kangaroo necropsies. Individual necropsy, medical, and inventory records for all kangaroos at the Kansas City Zoo were reviewed for the period 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2002. Two squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, two mammary gland adenocarcinomas, a multicentric T - cell lymphosarcoma, and one submucosal pyloric lipoma were diagnosed in six of 28 kangaroo deaths. Three neoplasms were diagnosed antemortem. Four of the six neoplasms were considered malignant and all four had metastasized. The mean age at death was 11 yr. All six animals with neoplasms were female; however, the exhibit population was comprised solely of females. Only 11 cases of neoplasia in red kangaroos have been reported in the literature. Based on these cases and a review of the literature, the most commonly observed neoplasms in red kangaroos are mammary gland adenocarcinomas and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Common denominators were not identified in these cases, though chronic gingivitis may have been a contributing factor in the development of the oral squamous cell carcinomas. 

Key words: Macropus rufus, mammary gland adenocarcinoma, neoplasia, red kangaroo, squamous cell carcinoma. 

紅大袋鼠的腫瘤調查,收集自1992-2002年中動物園的病例

Wm. Kirk Suedmeyer, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Gayle Johnson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

摘要︰在與一個針對紅大袋鼠屍解的十年回顧文獻中鮮少有腫瘤病例的結果相比,圈養紅大袋鼠的腫瘤病例比例有增加的情形。針對堪薩斯市動物園從199211日到20021231日之間的個體屍解及醫療紀錄進行回顧,在28隻死亡病例中,有兩個口腔的惡性鱗狀上皮細胞瘤,兩個乳腺惡性腺體瘤,一個多中心性惡性T細胞淋巴瘤及一個幽門黏膜下層的脂肪瘤。有3個腫瘤在屍解前被診斷出來。6個腫瘤中,有4個被認為是惡性,並且都發生轉移。平均死亡年齡是11歲。所有6個腫瘤病例都是雌性;不過這是因為展示族群全部都是雌袋鼠。在另一篇文獻中只有11個紅大袋鼠的腫瘤病例。基於這些病例和文獻回顧,最常在紅大袋鼠見到的腫瘤是乳腺惡性腺體瘤及口腔惡性鱗狀上皮細胞瘤。雖然,慢性齒齦炎,可能是口腔惡性鱗狀上皮細胞瘤,發展過程中的一個因素,但是其共同的特性,並未從這些病例中被確認。 

關鍵字︰紅大袋鼠,乳腺惡性腺體瘤,腫瘤,惡性鱗狀上皮細胞瘤。 

臺北市立動物園郭俊成獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 240-244 

ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF FIVE BIRD SPECIES AFTER VACCINATION WITH A KILLED WEST NILE VIRUS VACCINE

Danelle M. Okeson, D.V.M., Shirley Yeo Llizo, V.M.D., Christine L. Miller, D.V.M., and Amy L. Glaser, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

Abstract:  West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999.  Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus); little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor); American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber); Chilean flamingos (P. chilensis); and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri).  All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator™; Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa 50501, USA). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.   

Key wordsEudyptula minor, Phoenicopterus spp., Spheniscus demersus, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri, vaccine, West Nile virus. 

西尼羅死毒疫苗接種在五種鳥類的抗體反應

Danelle M. Okeson, D.V.M., Shirley Yeo Llizo, V.M.D., Christine L. Miller, D.V.M., and Amy L. Glaser, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

摘要:自西元1999年以來,大量的美國鳥類的死亡與西尼羅病毒相關。在三個動物園中,選擇五種鳥類進行西尼羅病毒免疫接種的抗體反應評估:包括黑腳企鵝(Spheniscus demersus)、小藍企鵝(Eudyptula minor)、大紅鶴 (Phoenicopterus ruber); 智利紅鶴 (P. chilensis)、及奧氏角雞(Tympanuchus cupido attwateri)。所有鳥至少以肌肉注射兩次免疫,市售不活化全毒疫苗(Innovator™; Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa 50501, USA)。在黑腳企鵝及兩種紅鶴,可見抗體力價隨著時間,有顯著的不同。 

關鍵詞:小藍企鵝,紅鶴類,黑腳企鵝,奧氏角雉,疫苗,西尼羅病毒。 

臺北市立動物園王寶容獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 
 

 

Pages 245-251 

HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE RANGES FOR WILD-CAUGHT

GOLIATH BIRDEATER SPIDERS (THERAPHOSA BLONDI) AND CHILEAN ROSE SPIDERS (GRAMMOSTOLA ROSEA) 

Trevor T. Zachariah, D.V.M., Mark A. Mitchell, D.V.M., Ph.D., Clare M. Guichard, and  

Rimme S. Singh, B.A. 

Abstract:  Theraphosid spiders have become increasingly popular for private and public uses in the United States.  However, little is known about their physiology from a medical standpoint.  This study represents the first attempt to establish reference hemolymph values for two common species of theraphosids, the goliath birdeater spider (Theraphosa blondi) and Chilean rose spider (Grammostola rosea).  Eleven T. blondi and twelve G. rosea, all wild-caught sub-adults, were obtained after importation and hemolymph collected for biochemical analysis.  After 8 weeks of captivity, hemolymph was again collected from the spiders and analyzed.  The biochemical analytes measured in the study included aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, potassium, and sodium.  The osmolality of the hemolymph was estimated for each spider using two different formulae.  There were significant differences in body weight, sodium, potassium, and osmolality between the sampling times for both species.  There were also significant differences in creatine kinase, calcium, total protein, and blood urea nitrogen between sampling periods for T. blondi.  The results of this study suggest that serial hemolymph samples may be used to assess the hydration status of theraphosid spiders.  In addition, the differences in hemolymph analytes between spiders suggest that there may be differences between species that should be addressed in future studies. 

Key words:  Biochemistry, Grammostola rosea, hemolymph, spider, Theraphosidae, Theraphosa blondi. 
 

野生捕捉的亞馬遜食鳥(THERAPHOSA BLONDI)紅玫瑰毛蜘蛛(GRAMMOSTOLA ROSEA)血淋巴生化參考值的範圍 

Trevor T. Zachariah, D.V.M., Mark A. Mitchell, D.V.M., Ph.D., Clare M. Guichard, and Rimme S. Singh, B.A. 

摘要:食鳥蜘蛛在美國已漸漸受到人們的喜愛。但是從醫療的觀點對牠們的生理所知有限。本研究是首次嘗試針對兩種常見的食鳥蜘蛛-亞馬遜食鳥蜘蛛和紅玫瑰毛蜘蛛,建立血淋巴的參考數值。11隻亞馬遜食鳥蜘蛛和12隻紅玫瑰毛蜘蛛從野外捕捉的成體,在輸入後採集血淋巴,並進行血液生化數值分析。在經過8星期的圈飼之後,在採集血淋巴並分析。分析的生化結果包括:天門冬安酸轉胺酵素、 肌酸酐酶、葡萄糖、總蛋白、白蛋白、尿酸、血中尿素氮、磷、鈣、鉀和鈉。對每一隻蜘蛛分別以兩種公式估計血淋巴的滲透壓。在兩種蜘蛛的兩個不同採樣所的的資料中,體重、鈉、鉀及滲透壓都有顯著的差異。而在亞馬遜食鳥蜘蛛,兩次的採樣間,肌酸酐酶、鈣、總蛋白及血中尿素氮含量皆有顯著差異。本研究的結論是,血淋巴的分析可以作為鳥食蜘蛛的脫水狀態。本研究中不同種蜘蛛血淋巴的分析,建議不同種蜘蛛間仍舊存在著差異,仍有待未來持續的研究。 

關鍵字︰生化,紅玫瑰毛蜘蛛(GRAMMOSTOLA ROSEA),血淋巴,蜘蛛,食鳥蜘蛛屬,亞馬遜食鳥(THERAPHOSA BLONDI)  

臺北市立動物園金仕謙獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 252-257

Attempted treatment of tigers (panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis  

John M. Sykes IV, D.V.M., and Edward C. Ramsay, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

   

Abstract:  An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003.  In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted.  Non-alopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility.  The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in non-alopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures.  Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals.  As a control, non-alopecic, but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated.  Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2).  All solutions were applied at 2 wk intervals for seven treatments.  The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers.  Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately post-treatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective.  A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as 2 sequential negative hair cultures.  Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that non-alopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

Key words: Dermatophytosis, lime sulfur, Microsporum canis, Oxyclean®, Panthera tigris, tiger.  
 

老虎感染犬小芽孢菌症(Microsporum canis)的嘗試處理

John M. Sykes IV, D.V.M., and Edward C. Ramsay, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要︰在2003年一個野生貓科動物庇護所,爆發了由犬小芽孢菌引起的老虎皮黴菌症。藉由臨床的實驗,嘗試建立一個有效、可應用、安全和經濟的方法來進行治療。這個機構中呈不顯性帶原狀態且沒有脫毛的老虎,被用來進行研究。以無脫毛但培養呈現陽性的老虎(18隻),分別飼養於四個分隔的圈養欄舍中;採局部使用2%的硫磺水及環境以過氧化物清潔,所組合成的三種治療方式,進行評估其效果。所有的個體都使用硫磺水做局部治療。另外選擇沒有脫毛,但培養呈現陽性的老虎(6隻)不做任何處理,圈養在兩個其他的區域,作為對照組。環境的處理方法包括以硫磺水(1隻)、過氧化物清潔劑(1隻)以及不處理(2隻)。所有溶液以2周的間隔,處裡7次。以2%的硫磺水治療,對改善大多數老虎的感染並不成功。而對環境的處理,硫磺水在使用後,可立即有效的抑制環境內黴菌的生長;但過氧化物清潔劑則無效。在兩年後,針對這些老虎及圈養區域的一個追蹤調查發現,在24隻中的22隻老虎(92%),在經過2次毛髮培養,都呈現陰性來看,皮膚的問題已經獲得解決。在回顧臨床的培養結果及追蹤研究,建議圈養在戶外感染皮膚黴菌症無脫毛現象的老虎,感染可以隨著時間被清除,但積極地進行個體或環境處理的效果卻無法確認。 

關鍵字︰皮膚黴菌症,硫磺水,犬小芽孢菌,Oxyclean®,老虎。 

臺北市立動物園郭俊成獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 258-268 

PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORALLY ADMINISTERED IBUPROFEN IN AFRICAN AND ASIAN ELEPHANTS (LOXODONTA AFRICANA AND ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) 

Ursula Bechert, D.V.M., Ph.D., and J. Mark Christensen, Ph.D. 

Abstract:

The pharmacokinetic parameters of S(+) and R(-) ibuprofen were determined in twenty elephants after oral administration of preliminary 4, 5 and 6 mg/kg doses of racemic ibuprofen.  Following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen, serum concentrations of ibuprofen peaked at 5 hrs at 3.9 ± 2.07 μg/ml R(-) and 10.65 ± 5.64 μg/ml S(+) (mean ± SD) in African (Loxodonta africana) and at  3.06 hrs at 5.14 ± 1.39 μg/ml R(-) and 13.77 ± 3.75 μg/ml S(+) in Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, respectively.  Six mg/kg dosages resulted in peak serum concentrations of 5.91 ± 2.17 μg/ml R(-) and 14.82 ± 9.71 μg/ml S(+) in African, and 5.72 ± 1.60 μg/ml R(-) and 18.32 ± 10.35 μg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants.  Ibuprofen was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 2.2-2.4 hrs R(-) and 4.49-5.1 hrs S(+) in African elephants and 2.4-2.9 hrs R(-) and 5.9-7.67 hrs S(+) in Asian elephants.  Serum concentrations of R(-) ibuprofen were undetectable at 24 hrs while S(+) ibuprofen decreased to below 5 μg/ml 24 hr post-administration in all elephants.  The volume of distribution was estimated to be between 322-356 ml/kg R(-) and 133-173 ml/kg S(+) in Asian elephants and 360-431 ml/kg R(-) and 179-207 ml/kg S(+) in African elephants.  Steady state serum concentrations of ibuprofen ranged from 2.2-10.5 μg/ml R(-) and 5.5 to 32.0 μg/ml S(+) (mean: 5.17 ± 0.7 R(-) and 13.95 ± 0.9 S(+)  μg/ml in African elephants and 5.0 ± 1.09 μg/ml R(-) and 14.1 ± 2.8 μg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants.  Racemic ibuprofen administered at 6 mg/kg/12 hr for Asian elephants and at 7 mg/kg/12 hr for African elephants results in therapeutic serum concentrations of this anti-inflammatory agent. 

Keywords:  African elephants, Asian elephants, ibuprofen, pharmacokinetics. 

異丁苯乙酸在亞洲象及非洲象口服投藥的藥物動力學研究

Ursula Bechert, D.V.M., Ph.D., and J. Mark Christensen, Ph.D. 

摘要:在20頭象,以每公斤456毫克的劑量,口服投予外消旋的ibuprofen,建立血清中S(+) R(-)異丁苯乙酸的量,作為藥物動力評量指標。在投予每公斤4毫克的劑量時,非洲象在5小時時,出現R(-)3.9 ± 2.07 μg/ml S(+)10.65 ± 5.64 μg/ml;而亞洲像在3.06小時時,出現的R(-) 5.14 ± 1.39 μg/mlS(+)13.77 ± 3.75 μg/ml,具有代表性。在投予每公斤6毫克的劑量時,非洲象出現R(-)5.91 ± 2.17 μg/ml S(+)14.82 ± 9.71 μg/ml;而亞洲像,出現的R(-)5.72 ± 1.60 μg/mlS(+)18.32 ± 10.35 μg/ml。而異丁苯乙酸的清除,是屬於單一區劃模型的一級動力學特性,在非洲象的半衰期是R(-)2.2-2.4小時,S(+)的半衰期是4.49-5.1小時;亞洲象則為R(-)的半衰期是2.4-2.9小時,S(+)的半衰期是5.9-7.67小時。所有的象,在服藥24小時後,R(-)於血清中的濃度,都已偵測不到;此時S(+)的濃度則已降到5 μg/ml以下。而估計體積量的分布,在亞洲象為R(-)322-356 ml/kgS(+)133-173 ml/kg;非洲象為R(-) 360-431 ml/kgS(+)179-207 ml/kg 。異丁苯乙酸在血清中穩定的濃度, R(-) 2.2-10.5 μg/ml S(+)5.5 to 32.0 μg/ml(平均非洲象為R(-)5.17 ± 0.7 S(+)13.95 ± 0.9  μg/ml ,亞洲象為R(-) 5.0 ± 1.09 μg/ml S(+)14.1 ± 2.8 μg/ml)。以外消旋的異丁苯乙酸作為治療抗炎症藥物,在亞洲象以每12小時,投予每公斤6毫克的劑量,非洲象以每12小時,投予每公斤7毫克的劑量,在血清中才能達到有效治療濃度。 

關鍵字:非洲象、亞洲象、異丁苯乙酸、藥物動力

臺北市立動物園金仕謙獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 269-279 

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY IN HEALTHY MANATEES (TRICHECHUS

MANATUS LATIROSTRIS) 

John W. Harvey, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Kendal E. Harr, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.V.P., David Murphy, D.V.M., Michael T. Walsh, D.V.M., Elizabeth J. Chittick, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Robert K. Bonde, Melanie G. Pate, Charles J. Deutsch, Ph.D., Holly H. Edwards, Ph.D.,  and Elsa M. Haubold, Ph.D. 

Abstract: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are endangered aquatic mammals living in coastal and riverine waterways of Florida and adjacent states. Serum or plasma biochemical analyses are important tools in evaluating the health of free-ranging and captive manatees. The purpose of this study was to measure diagnostically important analytes in the plasma of healthy manatees and to determine whether there was significant variation with respect to location (free-ranging versus captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, adults), and gender. No significant differences in plasma sodium, potassium, bilirubin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, or creatine kinase were found among these classes of animals. Compared to free-ranging manatees, captive animals had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma chloride, phosphate, magnesium, triglycerides, anion gap, and lactate. Captive manatees had significantly higher mean values of total CO2, calcium, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, g-glutamyltransferase, total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio than did free-ranging animals. Differences in the environments of these two groups, including diet, temperature, salinity, and stress, might account for some of these results. The higher plasma lactate and anion gap concentrations and lower total CO2 concentrations of free-ranging manatees were probably due to greater exertion during capture, but the lack of elevated plasma creatine kinase activity relative to captive animals indicates that there was no serious muscle injury associated with capture. Plasma phosphate decreased and total globulins increased with age. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were highest in small calves. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase was higher in large calves than in adults and subadults, and the albumin/globulin ratio was higher in subadults than in adults. Plasma total CO2 was higher and chloride was slightly lower in females than in males. 

Key Words: Captive, clinical biochemistry, healthy, manatee, plasma, proteins. 

健康海牛的臨床生化值 

John W. Harvey, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Kendal E. Harr, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.V.P., David Murphy, D.V.M., Michael T. Walsh, D.V.M., Elizabeth J. Chittick, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Robert K. Bonde, Melanie G. Pate, Charles J. Deutsch, Ph.D., Holly H. Edwards, Ph.D.,  and Elsa M. Haubold, Ph.D. 

    摘要:佛羅里達海牛(Trichechus manatus latirostris)是瀕臨絕種的水生哺乳動物,生活在佛羅里達及鄰近州的海岸及水道中。血清或血漿生化值是用來評估野生及圈養海牛健康與否很重要的一個工具。本實驗的主要目的是在測量檢康海牛的血漿重要的診斷分析值,同時決定不同的地區(野生或圈養)、年齡層(幼體、較大幼體、亞成體、成體)和性別間,是否有顯著的差異。血漿中的鈉、鉀、膽紅素、葡萄糖、丙氨酸轉胺酵素或是肌酸酐酶 ,再不同類群間沒有顯著差異。和野生的海牛比較,圈養的海牛明顯地具有較低的氯、磷、鎂、三酸甘油酯、陰離子和乳酸鹽。圈養的海牛的總二氧化碳平均濃度、鈣、尿酸、肌肝酸、鹼性磷酸酶、r-glutamyltransferase、總蛋白、白蛋白、和白蛋白/球蛋白比值,較野生的海牛顯著地增加。兩類群的動物,在環境上的不同,包括:飲食、溫度、鹽度和緊迫,可能與部分的結果有關。野生海牛具有較高的血漿乳酸鹽和陰離子濃度和較低的總二氧化碳濃度,也許是因為在捕捉時,有較多的掙扎所致;但是相較於圈養的海牛,血漿中的肌酸酐酶活性,並沒有增高;意味著在捕捉時,並沒有發生嚴重的肌肉傷害。隨著年齡增加,血漿中的磷會減少及總球蛋白的增加。血漿中的膽固醇和三酸甘油酯的濃度在幼體最高。在較大幼體血漿中的天門冬安酸轉胺酵素,比成體及亞成體為高。而亞成體的白蛋白/球蛋白比率,則比成體為高 。在公母之間,母海牛血漿中的總二氧化碳較高,而氯則稍微低一些。

              

    關鍵字:圈養的,臨床生化,健康,海牛,血漿,蛋白質。 

臺北市立動物園李安興獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 280-284 

PREVENTION OF URETHRAL BLOCKAGE FOLLOWING SEMEN COLLECTION IN TWO SPECIES OF LEMUR, VARECIA VARIEGATA VARIEGATA AND LEMUR CATTA 

Jenifer Chatfield, D.V.M., Linda Penfold, Ph.D., and Kortney O’Neill, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  Lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.  Of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered.  The effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. Introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging because of the highly social nature of lemurs. Semen collection in lemur species is notoriously challenging as the ejaculate forms a coagulum. During normal breeding, the coagulum forms a copulatory plug in the female.  However, this coagulum can present a life-threatening situation when retained in the urethra abnormally following electroejaculation. This study investigates the use of ascorbic acid in preventing urethral blockage in 2 lemur species during semen collection, demonstrates successful collection of semen from 2 species of lemur using electroejaculation during the breeding season, and discusses removal of urethral plugs subsequent to semen collection. Semen was collected successfully from all animals.  Urethral plugs formed during each collection and were abnormally retained in 2/11 collections. 

  Both plugs were successfully and immediately removed using retropulsion 後行傾向through a urethral catheter.  While the results of this study are encouraging, more investigation is required to establish whether or not this procedure can be safely performed in the field. 

Key Words: Lemur, Varecia variegata variegata, Lemur catta, semen collection, electroejaculation. 

兩種狐猴-白頸狐猴(VARECIA VARIEGATA VARIEGATA 和環尾狐猴(LEMUR CATTA)精液採集時尿道栓子的預防 

Jenifer Chatfield, D.V.M., Linda Penfold, Ph.D., and Kortney O’Neill, D.V.M. 

摘要:狐猴是靈長類動物中不同的類群,由五個科所組成;所有的狐猴都只在馬達加斯加及科摩羅群島被發現。在已知的60種狐猴中,有17種狐猴是瀕危物種,5種已瀕臨絕種。近親交配在族群健康及生存能力的影響,已經被詳細的描述,雖然近親交配的負面效應,可以經由引入新的基因而得到改善。由於狐猴的高度的社會化結構,使得新個體的引入,在群體中受到極大的挑戰。在狐猴物種的精液採集過程中,精液射出後所形成的凝結塊,為眾所周知的挑戰。在正常繁殖時,凝結塊狀物可形成母猴交配後的栓子。然而,在電激採精時凝結的塊狀物,不正常停留在尿道的凝結塊,卻會對動物生命構成嚴重的威脅。本研究就兩種狐猴,在精液採集時,利用維生素C,預防尿道的栓塞。在繁殖季節中 ,以電極採精法,成功的從兩種狐猴,採集到精液;並討論精液採集後發生的尿道塞子的移除。所有動物都成功的完成精液採集。在11次的成功精液採集中,都有尿道栓子發生。11次中僅有2次留存在尿道中。這2次的尿道栓子,均使用導尿管成功且快速的移除,雖然本研究的結果令人鼓舞,但仍需要有更多的研究以確認這個方式可安全的用於此一領域

關鍵字:狐猴、白頸狐猴(Varecia variegata variegate), 環尾狐猴(Lemur catta), 精液採集、電激採精。 

臺北市立動物園張志華獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 285-291 

LABORATORY FINDINGS IN ACUTE CYTAUXZOON FELIS INFECTION IN COUGARS (PUMA CONCOLOR COUGUAR) IN FLORIDA 

John W. Harvey D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Mike R. Dunbar, M.S., D.V.M., Terry M. Norton, D.V.M, Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Michael J. Yabsley, M.S., Ph.D. 

Abstract: Intraerythrocytic piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from Cytauxzoon felis, were identified in stained blood films from more than one-third of free-ranging cougars (Puma concolor cougar) in southern Florida in a study which failed to demonstrate negative effects of piroplasm infection on measured hematologic parameters. However, a recent study using a nested 18s rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identified only 9% of the free-ranging cougars in southern Florida as infected with C. felis, but found 83% of these animals were infected with an unnamed small Babesia sp. In the present study, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters were determined during the initial appearance of piroplasms in stained blood films of three western cougars housed in northern Florida. One animal became ill, but the remaining two animals did not exhibit clinical signs of disease. The hematocrit decreased in all three cougars concomitant with the first recognized parasitemia. A regenerative response to anemia (increased polychromasia, increased mean cell volume, and increased red cell distribution width) was recognized in two cougars that were examined twice during the following two weeks. Thrombocytopenia and probable leukopenia occurred in one animal. The most consistent clinical chemistry findings were increased serum bilirubin concentrations and increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at the time of initial recognition of parasitemia. Serum protein findings were not consistent in these cougars. The use of PCR and determination of 18S rRNA gene sequences in the blood from these three animals revealed infection with C. felis, but not with the Babesia sp. The present report demonstrates that mild hemolytic anemia, and probably liver injury, occurs concomitant with the initial discovery of C. felis piroplasms in stained blood films.  

Key words: Cougar, clinical biochemistry, Cytauxzoon, hematology, piroplasm, puma, Babesia. 

佛羅里達州山獅感染急性之CYTAUXZOON FELIS實驗室發現 

John W. Harvey D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Mike R. Dunbar, M.S., D.V.M., Terry M. Norton, D.V.M, Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Michael J. Yabsley, M.S., Ph.D. 

摘要:在南佛羅里達州,針對野生山獅所做的一項測量血液學參數的研究中,無法排除梨漿蟲的感染,卻從其中超過1/3 的在血液抹片上,發現了一種紅血球內梨漿蟲,此種寄生蟲無法從型態上與Cytauxzoon felis區分。然而,最近的一項研究,使用一種巢式18s rRNA 聚合脢連鎖反應法,證實南佛羅里達州野生的山獅,有9%感染了C. felis;但有83% 感染了尚未命名的小型焦蟲。同時,也針對了三隻居住於北佛州的西部山獅,當發現血片有梨漿蟲的同時,也確認了血液學及血清生化學數值。其中一隻動物出現病狀,其他二隻則沒有任何臨床症狀。三隻動物在第一次出現血液寄生蟲的同時,都出現血容比皆下降。在接下來的兩週中檢查了兩次,二隻山獅出現再生反應性貧血(血球多色性增加、血容比增加、紅血球大小分佈寬度增加)。有一隻動物有血小板減少及可能的白血球減少。在一開始檢查到血液寄生蟲時,最主要的臨床血清生化值異常是:血清膽紅素增加、丙氨酸轉胺酵素、天門冬安酸轉胺酵素活性上升。這些山獅的血清蛋白數值並無異常。使用聚合脢連鎖反應偵測血液中18s rRNA 基因序列顯示,這三隻動物感染了C. felis ,而不是焦蟲。從此報告顯示,一旦於染色血片中可發現梨漿蟲時,即伴隨著出現輕微的溶血性貧血及可能的肝臟受損。 

關鍵字:山獅,臨床生化值,Cytauxzoon,,血液學,梨漿蟲,焦蟲 

臺北市立動物園張志華獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 292-299  

systemic Calicivirus epidemic in captive exotic felids  

Tara M. Harrison, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., James Sikarskie, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., John Kruger, D.V.M., Ph.D., Annabel Wise, D.V.M., Ph.D., Thomas P. Mullaney, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Matti Kiupel, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Roger K. Maes, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

Abstract:  A 5 day old, mother-raised, Amur tiger cub (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with tongue ulcerations.  Identical lesions appeared and progressed to sloughing of the tongue in the three littermates of this cub the following day.  The lesions progressed in all cubs to include sloughing of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpal, and metatarsal foot pad epithelium.  Oral ulcerations were also noted in adult African lions (Panthera leo) and Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), but not in two adult snow leopards (Panthera uncia) housed in the same building.  All adult cats had been previously vaccinated for common feline diseases including feline calicivirus (FCV).  Detection of FCV RNA in oral secretions by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RRT-PCR) confirmed FCV infection in the tiger cubs and one lion.  A male lion and a male tiger cub died during the disease outbreak.  RRT-PCR confirmed FCV in multiple tissues in both of these animals.  A stray cat live-trapped outside the feline building during the epidemic was found to be positive for FCV by virus isolation and was thought to be the source of infection.     

Key words: African lion, Amur tiger, captive felid, feline calicivirus, systemic calicivirus. 

圈養野生貓科動物的全身性杯狀病毒流行病  

TARA M. HARRISON, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., JAMES SIKARSKIE, D.V.M., M.S., DIPL. A.C.Z.M., JOHN KRUGER, D.V.M., PH.D., MULLANEY, D.V.M., PH.D., A.C.V.P., MATTI KIUPEL, D.V.M., PH.D., A.C.V.P., AND ROGER K.  MAES, D.V.M., PH.D.  

摘要︰一隻5日齡,由母親餵養的西伯利亞虎仔獸,出現舌頭潰爛。隔天相同的病灶出現在與這隻仔獸同窩的其他3隻仔獸並進展成舌頭的壞死。全部仔獸的病灶進展到包括腕部,跗骨部,掌部和腳跖的肉墊上皮壞死脫落。在成年的非洲獅及西伯利亞虎也發現到口腔的潰爛,但圈養在同建築內的兩隻成年雪豹則未發病。全部成年的大貓之前都施打過常見的貓科疾病,包括貓杯狀病毒(FCV)的疫苗。在透過即時反轉錄合成聚合酶鏈反應分析法,偵測口腔分泌物中的貓杯狀病毒核醣核酸,確診了老虎仔獸們及一隻獅子的貓杯狀病毒的感染。一隻公獅和一隻公虎仔獸在此病爆發期間死亡。利用即時反轉錄合成聚合酶鏈反應分析法,在這兩隻動物的許多組織中,證實了貓杯狀細胞病毒的存在。在疾病發生時,貓科展示場外,從一隻被陷阱抓住的野貓,分離到貓杯狀病毒,因而被認為是感染的來源。 

關鍵字︰非洲獅,西伯利亞虎,圈養貓科動物,貓杯狀病毒,全身性杯狀病毒 

臺北市立動物園郭俊成獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 300-308 

ORAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMAS IN TIGERS (PANTHERA TIGRIS) – A COLLECTION OF 16 CASES 

John M. Sykes IV, D.V.M., Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P.,

Leah L. Greer, D.V.M., Nancy P. Lung, V.M.D., M.S., Rob L. Coke, D.V.M., Frank Ridgley, D.V.M., Mitch Bush, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Richard J. Montali, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Ben Okimoto, D.V.M., Robert Schmidt, D.V.M., PhD., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Jack L. Allen, D.V.M., D.A.C.Z.M., Bruce A. Rideout, D.V.M., PhD, Patricia A. Pesavento, D.V.M., PhD., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Edward C. Ramsay, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  Oral eosinophilic granulomas were diagnosed in 16 tigers (Panthera tigris).  All lesions were located on the hard or soft palate and typically consisted of flat or slightly raised circular ulcers.  Histologic features of these lesions were essentially identical to those seen in oral eosinophilic granulomas of domestic cats and dogs.  No clinical signs were noted in eight cases, though various degrees of inappetence, excessive salivation, and dysphagia were noted in the other eight tigers.  Six cases were not treated. Treatment for the remaining ten cases centered on corticosteroids and additional treatments included surgical removal, cryotherapy, antibiotics, and chlorpheniramine.  Treatment with corticosteroids did appear to be effective in some cases, though lesions would worsen after cessation of therapy and no cases were cured.  In addition, three cases developed complications possibly related to this corticosteroid therapy.  The etiology of these lesions remains unknown, though an underlying allergic condition is likely.   

Key words: Tiger, Panthera tigris, eosinophilic granuloma, allergy.  

16個老虎(PANTHERA TIGRIS)口腔嗜伊紅性肉芽腫案例收集報告 

John M. Sykes IV, D.V.M., Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P.,

Leah L. Greer, D.V.M., Nancy P. Lung, V.M.D., M.S., Rob L. Coke, D.V.M., Frank Ridgley, D.V.M., Mitch Bush, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Richard J. Montali, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Ben Okimoto, D.V.M., Robert Schmidt, D.V.M., PhD., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Jack L. Allen, D.V.M., D.A.C.Z.M., Bruce A. Rideout, D.V.M., PhD, Patricia A. Pesavento, D.V.M., PhD., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Edward C. Ramsay, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要:在16隻老虎口腔,經診斷患有嗜伊紅性肉芽腫。所有的病灶皆在軟顎或硬顎,由典型的扁平或輕微冗起的潰瘍。病灶經組織學診斷,出現與貓、狗口腔相同的嗜伊紅性肉芽腫結構。其中8個案例沒有明顯臨床症狀。而其他8個案例則出現不等程度的食慾不振、大量流口水及吞嚥困難的情形。6個病例並未接受治療。其餘10隻個體,則接受以類固醇為主的治療,再伴隨以外科切除、冷烙、抗生素及抗過敏藥(chlorpheniramine)治療。一些病例以類固醇治療後有效,但是在停藥後又再惡化,且沒有案例痊癒。另外,有3個病例出現與類固醇使用有關的併發症。此病的病因仍舊不明,但似乎與過敏有關。 

關鍵字︰老虎(PANTHERA TIGRIS),嗜伊紅性肉芽腫,過敏 

臺北市立動物園金仕謙獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

Pages 309-316 

FATAL HEMOPROTOZOAL INFECTIONS IN MULTIPLE AVIAN SPECIES IN A ZOOLOGICAL PARK  

Shannon T. Ferrell, D.V.M., Dipl. A.B.V.P. (Avian), Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Karen Snowden, D.V.M., Ph.D., Annajane B. Marlar, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.O., Michael Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Nancy P. Lung, V.M.D., M.S. 

Abstract: Over a 3 yr span, two juvenile lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor), two green jays (Cyanocorax yncas glaucescens), and two Montezuma oropendolas (Psarocolius montezuma) died peracutely with no premonitory signs at a zoological park in the southern USA. At necropsy, the birds were in excellent body condition. Except for one green jay, the coelomic cavities were filled with a dark serosanguineous fluid. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were present. The livers were tan to purple with numerous, randomly distributed, red to black foci, ranging in size from 1-4 mm. The predominant histopathologic finding, except in one green jay, were large protozoal cysts in the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the protozoal cysts were restricted to the liver, and none were identified in the skeletal muscle, spleen, or other tissues. Frozen tissue samples harvested at necropsy had a nested polymerase chain reaction assay performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene of the protozoa. The amplified gene sequences were compared to reference cytochrome B gene sequences for avian Plasmodium spp., Haemoproteus spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. The protozoal parasite within the hepatic parenchyma from the Montezuma oropendolas and the lesser flamingos was identified as Haemoproteus spp. Both green jays had Plasmodium spp. isolated from the submitted tissue samples. The peracute nature of the infections precluded any successful medical intervention, making prevention by exclusion, the principal means to control hemoprotozoal transmission. There are no reports in the literature documenting identified fatal hemoprotozoal infections in oropendolas, green jays, or lesser flamingos. 

Key words: Hemoprotozoa, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, flamingos, Montezuma oropendola, green jay. 

在一動物園中多種鳥類感染致命性血液原蟲

Shannon T. Ferrell, D.V.M., Dipl. A.B.V.P. (Avian), Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Karen Snowden, D.V.M., Ph.D., Annajane B. Marlar, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.O., Michael Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and Nancy P. Lung, V.M.D., M.S.

摘要:美國南部一間動物園在3年內,發生兩隻未成年小紅鶴 (Phoeniconaias minor)、兩隻綠松鴉 (Cyanocorax yncas glaucescens)、和兩隻褐色擬椋鳥(Psarocolius montezuma)沒有徵兆的急性死亡。解剖發現動物的狀況極佳。除了一隻綠松鴉以外,體腔都充滿了暗色的漿血樣(serosanguineous)的液體。且肝、脾皆腫大。肝臟呈現棕褐色到紫色,並有許多1-4毫米大小,散發性的紅黑色小點。除了一隻綠松鴉以外,組織病理學上主要發現是在肝臟實質組織的大型原蟲性囊包。組織病理上,原蟲囊包僅發現於肝臟,在骨骼肌、脾臟及其他組織則完全未發現。將病理解剖時取得的冷凍組織樣本,進行PCR增幅,分析原蟲的粒線體細胞色素B基因。將得到的基因序列與鳥禽瘧原蟲、血液變形蟲、白胞蟲的細胞色素B基因序列做比較。在褐色擬椋鳥及小紅鶴肝臟實質發現的囊腫證實為血液變形蟲。在兩隻綠松鴉取得的組織樣本中,分離出瘧原蟲。急性發病的特性,使得醫療成功的機會極低,隔絕成為最重要的防堵血液原蟲傳染的方式。文獻紀錄中對擬椋鳥、綠松鴉、及小紅鶴致死性血液原蟲的感染並沒有任何報告。 

關鍵詞:血液原蟲,瘧原蟲,血液變形蟲,紅鶴,褐色擬椋鳥,綠松鴉 

臺北市立動物園王寶榮獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 317-322 

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PRESUMPTIVE POST-OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EDEMA IN A FLORIDA PANTHER 

Abstract:  A free-ranging, adult male Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) was immobilized and evaluated for hematuria following routine capture.  Prior to anesthetic recovery, the panther was fitted with a telemetry collar.  After an initially quiet recovery, the panther began thrashing in the transport cage, and was again immobilized.  Pink foam was evident from the nostrils, and crackles were ausculted over the chest, indicating pulmonary edema.  Post-obstructive pulmonary edema was diagnosed based on history, clinical signs, radiographic evaluation, and blood gas analysis.  The animal was treated intensively for several hours with diuretics, oxygen, and manual ventilation.  The panther responded rapidly to therapy and was released back into the wild 48 hours after presentation.  Post-obstructive pulmonary edema, also called negative-pressure pulmonary edema, may be under recognized in veterinary medicine.  In this case, the telemetry collar, in conjunction with anesthetic recovery in a small transport crate, may have contributed to tracheal obstruction.  Wildlife veterinarians and biologists should be aware of the risk of airway obstruction when placing tracking collars, and animals should be continuously monitored during anesthetic recovery to ensure the presence of a patent airway. 

Keywords: Panther, pulmonary edema, Puma concolor, telemetry collar, tracheal obstruction. 

佛羅里達美洲獅推測為阻塞後肺水腫的診斷與治療 

摘要:一隻野生的成年公佛羅里達美洲獅(Puma concolor coryi),爲了評估血尿的病情,進行例行的捕捉麻醉。在麻醉甦醒之前,裝置了頸圈發報器。在初期安靜的恢復過程,美洲獅開始在運輸籠內出現滑水動作,而再次給與麻醉。明顯的粉紅色泡沫從鼻孔流出,胸腔聽診出現爆裂聲皆指向有肺水腫。依據病史、臨床徵狀、放射線的評估及血液氣體分析,診斷為阻塞後肺水腫。動物經過利尿劑、氧氣及用主動呼吸裝置的加護治療,美洲獅對於治療的反應迅速,因此於捕捉麻醉48小時後放回野外。阻塞後肺水腫亦稱為負壓性肺水腫,在獸醫學裡有可能被診斷出。在本病例中,裝置頸圈發報器後,安置在小的運輸箱內等待麻醉甦醒,可能導致氣管的阻塞。野生動物獸醫及生物學家應該要知道,在裝置追蹤頸圈時,發生呼吸道阻塞的風險,動物在麻醉甦醒時應持續的監控,以確保呼吸道的暢通。 

關鍵字:美洲獅(Puma concolor)、肺水腫、頸圈發報器、氣管阻塞 

臺北市立動物園張志華獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 323-328 

Primary meningeal T-cell lymphoma in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)

Sophie Labrut, D.V.M., Monique Wyers, D.V.M., Dipl. E.C.V.P, Julien Miclard, D.V.M., and Marie-Anne Colle, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. E.C.V.P.

 

Abstract:  A 15-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) was referred to the Nantes Veterinary School, Nantes, France with a clinical history of anorexia, seizures and left hemiplegia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed large numbers of neoplastic lymphoid cells. After injection of a contrast agent into the cerebrospinal space, radiographs demonstrated an asymmetry of the right lateral ventricle. On necropsy examination, a marked edema of the right frontal lobe, extending to the basal nuclei and thalamus in the brain was observed. Histological examination of the brain revealed leptomeningeal lymphoma. Immunohistochemical labeling demonstrated that the neoplasm was of T-cell origin. No significant macroscopic or microscopic lesions were observed in the other organs, including lymphoid organs, examined. This is the first report of primary leptomeningeal lymphoma in a harbor seal. 

Key words:  Brain, harbor seal, lymphoma, meningeal, pinniped, tumor. 

麻斑海豹(Phoca vitulina)原發性腦膜T細胞淋巴瘤

Sophie Labrut, D.V.M., Monique Wyers, D.V.M., Dipl. E.C.V.P, Julien Miclard, D.V.M., and Marie-Anne Colle, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. E.C.V.P. 

摘要:15歲麻斑海豹因為臨床上出現厭食、抽蓄以及左半側偏癱症狀,被轉診到法國南特的南特獸醫學校。腦脊液檢查發現出現大量腫瘤性淋巴細胞。於腦脊髓腔注射顯影劑後,放射線影像呈現右側腦室不對稱。解剖發現右前葉明顯水腫,延伸到基底核與下視丘。腦部組織學檢查呈現腦軟膜淋巴瘤。免疫組織化學標示證明腫瘤細胞為源自於T細胞。其他臟器包括淋巴器官,並無明顯肉眼與顯微病變。這是麻斑海豹原發性腦軟膜淋巴瘤的首例報告。 

關鍵字:腦,麻斑海豹(Phoca vitulina),淋巴瘤,腦膜,鰭角亞目,腫瘤。 

臺北市立動物園賴燕雪獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 329-332 

OCCURRENCE OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN AN ADULT MALE NILE LECHWE (KOBUS MEGACEROS)  

Floyd D. Wilson, B .S., D.V.M., Scott D. Fitzgerald, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Matti Kiupel, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Rodney L. Walker, B. S., D.V.M., Corey B. Williams, B. S., and Donna J. Todd, A. S. 

Abstract: A fourteen-year-old male Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros) from the Jackson Zoo (Mississippi, USA) had chronic weight loss that was associated with elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels. On the day that necropsy was performed and approximately four years after exhibiting the first clinical signs of weight loss, the animal fractured it’s left rear femur and was subsequently euthanized. The liver was grossly enlarged and contained a smooth surfaced nodular mass that occupied the majority of the right lobe of the liver. The mass had a liver-like appearance exhibiting a tan-red coloration but having a soft consistency. A single, approximately 0.6 cm, round, slightly elevated discrete red nodule was present in the left anterior lung. Microscopically, the hepatic mass and pulmonary nodule diffusely consisted of irregular cords of cells exhibiting hepatoid features, but containing no evidence of normal portal bile duct or portal triad development.  To our knowledge, this is the first report in the scientific literature of a naturally occurring case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Nile lechwe or in any antelope species.  

Key words: Antelope, hepatocellular carcinoma, Kobus megaceros, neoplasia, Nile lechwe. 

成年雄性驢羚(Kobus megaceros)肝癌 

摘要:美國密西西比州Jackson動物園內14歲雄性驢羚,出現慢性體重減輕與血清鹼性磷酸酶上升。在發現體重減輕後大約4年,動物發生左後肢股骨骨折,因此安樂死,並進行屍體解剖。肝臟極度腫大,表面平滑的結節狀腫塊佔據大部分的肝右葉。腫塊表面呈現肝樣化、紅棕色但觸感軟。在左前肺葉發現單獨約0.6公分,呈圓形輕微突起的紅色結節。鏡檢時,肝腫塊與肺結節普遍出現不規則索狀細胞,呈現肝樣特徵,但沒有正常的肝門膽管或肝門三體的結構。據目前所知,這是科學文獻就驢羚或任何羚羊物種,自然發生肝癌之首例報告。 

關鍵字:羚羊、肝癌、驢羚(Kobus megaceros)、腫瘤。 

臺北市立動物園賴燕雪獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 333-336  

Treatment of Malignant Lymphoma in an African Lion (Panthera leo) 

Tara M. Harrison, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., James Sikarskie, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Barbara Kitchell, D.V.M., Ph.D., Diana S. Rosenstein, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.V.R., Heather Flaherty, D.V.M., Scott D. Fitzgerald, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Dipl. A.C.P.V., and Matti Kiupel, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract:  A 14 yr-old male, vasectomized African lion (Panthera leo) exhibited mild weight loss despite adequate appetite.  Splenomegaly was diagnosed upon physical examination.  Based on hematology and clinical pathology, malignant lymphoma with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed.  Abdominal exploratory surgery and splenectomy were performed.  Histologic examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed a small cell peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).  Initial treatments consisted of doxorubicin, prednisone, with later addition of lomustine.  The lion remained in clinical remission at 2 mo, 6 mo, and 12 mo post-chemotherapy physical examinations.  The lion survived 504 days from initial diagnosis. At necropsy, the only lesions consistent with lymphoma were localized epitheliotrophic infiltrates of small neoplastic T-lymphocytes within the nasopharyngeal epithelium and the underlying submucosa observed on microscopic examination.   

Key words: African lion, chemotherapy, felid, lymphoma, Panthera leo. 

非洲獅(Panthera leo)惡性淋巴瘤的治療 

TARA M. HARRISON, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., JAMES SIKARSKIE, D.V.M., M.S., DIPL. A.C.Z.M., BARBARA KITCHELL, D.V.M., PH.D., ROSENSTEIN, D.V.M., M.S., DIPL. A.C.V.R., HEATHER FLAHERTY, D.V.M., SCOTT D.  FITZGERALD, D.V.M., PH.D., A.C.V.P., DIPL. A.C.P.V., AND MATTI KIUPEL, D.V.M., PH.D., A.C.V.P.  

摘要︰一隻14歲的雄性,曾做過輸精管結紮的非洲獅,出現食慾正常體重卻輕微減少的情形。體檢診斷出脾臟腫大。根據血液學和臨床病理學,牠被診斷出罹患惡性淋巴瘤伴隨慢性淋巴球性白血病。隨後進行腹部探查手術和脾臟摘除術。組織學檢查和免疫組織化學染色,確認為周邊小細胞T細胞淋巴瘤(PTCL) 。剛開始的處理方法使用doxorubicinprednisone,隨後增加使用lomustine。這隻獅子在化療後2個月、6個月及12個月的臨床檢查,呈現緩解的狀態。牠從最初診斷後,存活了504天。屍解時,與淋巴瘤相關的唯一病灶,僅在鏡檢時,於鼻咽喉上皮及黏膜下層,有呈局部分布、上皮浸潤性的小腫瘤化T淋巴球出現。 

關鍵字︰非洲獅(Panthera leo),化學療法,貓科動物,淋巴瘤。

臺北市立動物園郭俊成獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 337-340 

PASSIVE TRANSFER OF MATERNAL ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN FLAMINGO CHICKS (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS AND PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER RUBER) 

Eric J. Baitchman, D.V.M., Michael F. Tlusty, Ph.D., and Hayley W. Murphy, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).  Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented, measured by plaque reduction neutralization test.  Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers.  Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.   

Key words:  flamingo, maternal antibodies, Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber, West Nile virus. 

母源性西尼羅河病毒抗體在智利紅鶴(Phoenicopterus chilensis) 及加勒比海紅鶴(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)幼雛的被動傳送 

Eric J. Baitchman, D.V.M., Michael F. Tlusty, Ph.D., and Hayley W. Murphy, D.V.M. 

摘要:針對圈養智利紅鶴(Phoenicopterus chilensis)及加勒比海紅鶴(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)族群,進行西尼羅病毒(WNV)母源抗體被動免疫的研究。以毒性削減中和檢測法檢測西尼羅病毒抗體,自母禽移轉至幼雛的量並紀錄。母禽抗體力價與幼雛抗體力價有顯著相關。幼雛測得的母源抗體,其平均半衰期為13.4天。   

關鍵詞:紅鶴,母源抗體,智利紅鶴(Phoenicopterus chilensis),加勒比海紅鶴(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber),西尼羅病毒。   

臺北市立動物園王寶容獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 
 

 

Pages 341-344 

wound management in a juvenile tiger (panthera tigris) using vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C. THERAPY)  

Maud Lafortune, D.M.V., M.Sc., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Gregory J. Fleming, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Jason L. Wheeler, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.S., Thomas Göbel, Dr. Vet. Med., P.D., and David W. Mozingo, M.D., F.A.C.S. 

Abstract:  A 6-wk-old tiger (Panthera tigris) was evaluated for severe skin lacerations from an adult tiger attack.  A caudal superficial epigastric skin flap was surgically placed to cover a defect that could not be closed over the hind limb; however, the skin flap did not adhere well to the granulation tissue over a period of 1 mo. The granulation bed matured and deteriorated. A subatmospheric pressure technique (Vacuum-Assisted Closure, V.A.C. ® Therapy, Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, Texas 78219, USA) was utilized and flap adherence occurred after 4 wk. This technique should be considered when dealing with severe or chronic wounds in tractable animals. This is the first report of clinical use of V.A.C. Therapy in non-domestic animals.  

Key Words:  Vacuum-Assisted Closure, tiger, Panthera tigris, wound management. 

吸引輔助封口術在幼年老虎(Panthera tigris)傷口的處理應用 

Maud Lafortune, D.M.V., M.Sc., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Gregory J. Fleming, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Jason L. Wheeler, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.S., Thomas Göbel, Dr. Vet. Med., P.D., and David W. Mozingo, M.D., F.A.C.S. 

摘要:一隻六週大的幼虎,因為被一隻成年老虎攻擊,皮膚出現嚴重的撕裂傷。經以後上腹皮瓣做整形手術覆蓋後肢的皮膚缺損部分。由於超過一個月後皮瓣仍無法與傷口的肉芽組織形成良好癒合,肉芽組織面成熟而退化。利用低壓技術(Vacuum-Assisted Closure, V.A.C. ® Therapy, Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, Texas 78219, USA) 處理,皮瓣組織在四週後已經癒合。本技術一般在溫馴動物,發生嚴重或慢性的傷口時可以考慮使用。本篇為臨床應用吸引輔助封口術V.A.C於非家畜動物的首次報告。 

關鍵字:吸引輔助封口術,老虎(Panthera tigris),傷口處理 

臺北市立動物園張志華獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 345-347 

RESTING HEART RATE AND TYMPANIC TEMPERATURE IN OPERANT CONDITIONED WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) 

Corrine S. Brown, DVM, and Jennifer M. Finnegan, DVM 

Abstract:  The conscious, resting heart rate and body temperature of healthy western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is not reported in the literature.  To obtain this information, two clinically healthy adult male western lowland gorillas in a training program were conditioned to allow auscultation and obtain tympanic temperatures.  The mean heart rate was 73.8 ± 8.96 bpm (n = 176), and was lower than mean heart rates reported in studies on anesthetized gorillas.  The mean tympanic temperature was 35.5 ± 0.7°C (95.9 ± 1.23°F) (n = 209).  The right tympanic temperature (rtt) and left tympanic temperature (ltt) were recorded separately for one gorilla.  A small but statistically significant difference was present between the mean rtt of 35.8 ± 0.7°C (96.5 ± 1.2°F) (n = 137) and the mean ltt of 35.7 ± 0.8°C (96.2 ± 1.3° F) (n = 121).   

Key words: Cardiac, gorilla, heart rate, tympanic temperature. 
 

西方的低地金剛猩猩(Gorilla gorilla gorilla)在行為制約下休息時的心跳速率及耳溫 

Corrine S. Brown, DVM, and Jennifer M. Finnegan, DVM 

摘要:健康的西方低地金剛猩猩在有意識、休息的狀態下,其心跳速率及耳溫在文獻中並未有報告。為了要得到這個資料,兩隻臨床上公的健康成年西方低地金剛猩猩在有計畫的訓練下,接受聽診及測量耳溫。平均心跳速率為73.8 ± 8.96 bpm (n = 176),比過往金剛猩猩在麻醉狀態下的心跳速率報告來得慢。耳膜平均溫度為35.5 ± 0.7°C (95.9 ± 1.23°F) (n = 209)。在其中一隻金剛猩猩分別記錄左右的耳溫;左右耳溫雖僅有少許不同,統計上卻有顯著差異,右耳平均35.8 ± 0.7°C (96.5 ± 1.2°F) (n = 137);左耳平均35.7 ± 0.8°C (96.2 ± 1.3° F) (n = 121) 

關鍵字:心臟的,金剛猩猩(Gorilla gorilla gorilla),心跳速率,耳膜溫度。 

臺北市立動物園張志華獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 348-351  

MYCOPLASMOSIS IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA) 

Daniel R. Brown, M.S., Ph.D., Lori D. Wendland, D.V.M., and David S. Rotstein, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract: Mycoplasma iguanae was the suspected etiology of spinal disease in feral iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Florida. In an experimental infection study, juvenile iguanas were inoculated with M. iguanae intravenously or by instillation into the nares. Blood samples obtained at intervals post-inoculation were all culture-negative for mycoplasma. Gross anatomical and histological findings at necropsy 12 wk post-inoculation were unremarkable. Mycoplasmas were cultured in high numbers from the posterior choanae and upper trachea of some inoculated and control iguanas at necropsy. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of these isolates revealed they were all a previously undescribed strain, Mycoplasma insons proposed species nova. M. iguanae. This isolate was not recovered from the conjunctivae, choanae, trachea, lung, coelomic cavity, blood, heart, liver, spleen, limb joints, brain, or spinal cord of inoculated iguanas, and the iguanas did not seroconvert. We conclude that M. iguanae is unlikely to be an agent of acute disease in iguanas; and that M. insons can be considered a normal flora in the respiratory tract of iguanas. 

Key words:  Bone disease, iguana, Mycoplasma iguanae, Mycoplasma insons. 

綠鬣蜥(Iguana iguana)黴漿菌症 

Daniel R. Brown, M.S., Ph.D., Lori D. Wendland, D.V.M., and David S. Rotstein, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

摘要:鬣蜥黴漿菌(Mycoplasma iguanae)是被懷疑是佛羅里達野生綠鬣蜥脊椎疾病的病因。在實驗感染研究中,將鬣蜥黴漿菌經靜脈注射,或自鼻腔滴入年幼的綠鬣蜥,進行實驗性接種。接種後,於不同時期採血進行黴漿菌的培養皆為陰性。在接種後12週,進行解剖,從肉眼上與組織學病變觀察,皆無明顯異常。從一些經過接種的個體與對照組個體屍解後,從鼻腔後段與氣管上段採樣中,培養出大量的黴漿菌。從此培養菌的16S rDNA基因序列分析顯示,為先前未被描述的品系,建議定名為新種鬣蜥黴漿(Mycoplasma insons)。從接種個體的結膜、鼻腔後方、氣管、肺、體腔、血液、心、肝、脾、後肢關節、腦或脊椎,並未分離到鬣蜥黴漿菌,而且動物也沒有出現血清陽轉。我們認為鬣蜥黴漿菌不是鬣蜥急性疾病的病原,而M. insons可能是鬣蜥呼吸道正常的菌叢。 

關鍵字:骨病,鬣蜥(Iguana iguana),新種鬣蜥黴漿菌(Mycoplasma insons) 

臺北市立動物園賴燕雪獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

 

Pages 352-356 

MICROCHIP-ASSOCIATED LEIOMYOSARCOMA IN AN EGYPTIAN FRUIT BAT (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS) 

Jessica Siegal-Willott, D.V.M., Darryl Heard, B.V.M.S., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Naime Sliess, M.S., Diane Naydan, B. S., and John Roberts, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract: Microchips are commonly used in companion, research, and zoo animal medicine for easy, reliable, and cost-effective identification with relatively low risk of side effects. This report describes development of a metastatic leiomyosarcoma associated with a microchip in an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). 

Key words: α-smooth muscle actin, Egyptian fruit bat, leiomyosarcoma, microchip, neoplasia, Rousettus aegyptiacus. 

在一隻埃及果蝠Rousettus aegyptiacus發現與晶片有關的平滑肌瘤

Jessica Siegal-Willott, D.V.M., Darryl Heard, B.V.M.S., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Naime Sliess, M.S., Diane Naydan, B. S., and John Roberts, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

摘要:晶片因為有方便、確實及副作用相對低又節省成本的個體辨識方式;所以普遍用於寵物、研究及動物園的野生動物醫療。此篇報告是描述一隻埃及果蝠,與晶片植入有關的轉移性惡性平滑肌瘤的發展。 

關鍵字:α-平滑肌動蛋白,埃及果蝠(Rousettus aegyptiacus),惡性平滑肌瘤、晶片、腫瘤。 

臺北市立動物園連振曄獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

 

Pages 357-362  

CONCURRENT WEST NILE VIRUS AND MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM INFECTION IN A BLACK-NECKED SWAN (CYGNUS MELANOCORYPHUS) 

Deena Brenner, D.V.M., R. Scott Larsen, D.V.M, M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Raymund F. Wack, D.V.M, M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M, Dalen Agnew, D.V.M, Dipl. A.C.V.P, Denise Imai, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  An adult male black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) was evaluated for a routine physical examination and West Nile virus vaccination.  Nine days later the swan was hospitalized for weakness, dehydration, tremors, and leukocytosis.  Gradual clinical improvement was seen over a two-wk course of supportive care.  However, the animal became acutely weak and was found dead.  Histopathology revealed severe granulomatous pneumonia and air sacculitis with dissemination to the liver, spleen, intestine and coelom.  Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by identification of acid-fast bacilli within tissue sections and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).  Concurrent West Nile virus infection was identified in sections of brain using immunohistochemistry.   

Key words:  black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus, West Nile virus, Mycobacterium avium, granulomatous pneumonia. 
 

黑頸天鵝Cygnus melanocoryphus合併感染西尼羅病毒及鳥型分枝桿菌之病例 

Deena Brenner, D.V.M., R. Scott Larsen, D.V.M, M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Raymund F. Wack, D.V.M, M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M, Dalen Agnew, D.V.M, Dipl. A.C.V.P, Denise Imai, D.V.M. 

摘要:一隻成年黑頸天鵝,進行了例行性身體檢查及施打西尼羅病毒疫苗。於施打九天後,該天鵝出現衰弱、脫水、顫抖及白血球升高而住院。經過兩週的支持療法後,症狀逐漸改善;但是,該動物卻突然急性衰竭而死亡。組織病理學檢查顯示:嚴重的肉芽腫性肺炎及氣囊炎,且全面散佈至肝、脾、腸及泄殖腔。經由組織切片的抗酸染色及聚合脢連鎖反應確診為分枝桿菌的感染。腦組織切片經免疫組織螢光化學染色,確診為合併西尼羅病毒的感染。 

關鍵字:黑頸天鵝(Cygnus melanocoryphus),西尼羅病毒,鳥型分枝桿菌,肉芽腫性肺炎。 

臺北市立動物園余珍芳獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。 

 

Pages 363-366

SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO A CANARYPOX-VECTORED CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS VACCINE IN THE GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) 

Ellen Bronson, med. vet., Sharon L. Deem, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Carlos Sanchez, D.V.M., M.Sc., Suzan Murray, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is known to be susceptible to natural infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). Vaccination of giant pandas with conventional modified live CDV vaccines has been avoided due to the numerous carnivore species known to have become infected with CDV after vaccination. Serum-neutralizing antibodies to CDV were measured after s.c. and i.m. annual vaccination with a canarypox-vectored recombinant CDV vaccine in an adult male and female giant panda over the period of 2 yr. The vaccine proved to be safe, and serum-neutralizing antibody titers interpreted as protective against CDV disease were measured in each animal. 

Key words: Ailuropoda melanoleuca, canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine, canine distemper virus, giant panda, titer, vaccine. 

大熊貓(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)於注射以金絲雀痘為載體的犬瘟熱疫苗後的血清學反應 

Ellen Bronson, med. vet., Sharon L. Deem, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Carlos Sanchez, D.V.M., M.Sc., Suzan Murray, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要:大熊貓在自然環境下會感染犬瘟熱病毒。一般常用的活毒犬瘟熱疫苗並不被建議使用於大貓熊;因為已知許多的肉食類動物,在注射減毒的犬瘟熱病毒疫苗後,會造成感染發病。在一公一母的成年大熊貓,檢測經皮下或肌肉注射方式,給予以金絲雀痘為載體的重組犬瘟熱疫苗後的血清中和抗體,持續兩年。此種疫苗不僅安全,還能在每一個個體中,產生足夠抵抗犬瘟熱病毒的抗體力價。 

關鍵字:金絲雀痘為載體的重組疫苗,犬瘟熱病毒,大貓熊(Ailuropoda melanoleuca),力價,疫苗。 

臺北市立動物園連振曄獸醫師翻譯;金仕謙獸醫師審訂。

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