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jzwm_chineseabstract_v38n1_2007

Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 

Volume 38, Issue 1

Abstracts 

Pages 1-6 

MONITORING OF THE VENTILATORY STATUS OF ANESTHETIZED BIRDS OF PREY USING END-TIDAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEASURED WITH A MICROSTREAM CAPNOMETER 

Marion Desmarchelier, D.V.M., Yves Rondenay, D.M.V., Cert. Res. (anesthesiology), Guy Fitzgerald, D.M.V., M.Sc,  Stéphane Lair, D.M.V., D.E.S., D.V.Sc. Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  The relationship between end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and blood pH in isoflurane-anesthetized raptors was evaluated. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH were determined in serial arterial samples from isoflurane anesthetized birds and compared to concurrent end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured with a Microstream sidestream capnograph. Forty-eight paired samples, taken from 11 birds of prey weighing 416 - 2062 g, were used to determine correlations coefficients between PaCO2 and PETCO2, and between PETCO2 and pH. Limits of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 were also calculated. Strong correlations were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (r = 0.94; P < 0.0001), as well as between PETCO2 and pH (r = - 0.90; P < 0.0001). However, the level of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 varied considerably. Low values of PETCO2, ranging from 18 to 29 mm Hg, exceeded the concomitantly measured values of PaCO2 by an average of 6.0 mm Hg (6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg (mean ± SD)). Conversely, high values of PETCO2, ranging from 50 to 63 mm Hg, were on average 7.6 mm Hg (7.6 mm Hg ± 9.8) lower than values of PaCO2. In the 30 to 49 mm Hg range for PETCO2, the difference between PETCO2 and PaCO2 was on average 1.0 mm Hg (1.0 mm Hg ± 8.5). These results suggest that the capnograph utilized provided a sufficiently accurate estimation of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide for birds weighing over 400 g and receiving manual positive ventilation with a Bain system. In our study, the linear relationship observed between the pH and the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide suggested that the monitoring of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide can also be useful to prevent respiratory acidosis. 

Key words:  anesthesia, avian, birds of prey, capnography, end-tidal CO2. 
 
 
 

以二氧化碳微量監測儀測量潮氣末二氧化碳量監測麻醉中猛禽的換氣狀 

Marion Desmarchelier, D.V.M., Yves Rondenay, D.M.V., Cert. Res. (anesthesiology), Guy Fitzgerald, D.M.V., M.Sc,  Stéphane Lair, D.M.V., D.E.S., D.V.Sc. Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要: 評估使用isoflurane麻醉的猛禽,其潮氣末二氧化碳分壓(PETCO2)、動脈二氧化碳分壓(PaCO2)與血液酸鹼值的關係。從一系列採自isoflurane麻醉中猛禽動脈樣本,測得動脈二氧化碳分壓及酸鹼值,與同時利用微量二氧化碳監測儀取得的潮氣末二氧化碳分壓比較。由十一隻體重416-2062克的猛禽,取得的48組配對樣本,來瞭解動脈二氧化碳分壓與潮氣末二氧化碳分壓,及潮氣末二氧化碳分壓與血液酸鹼值間的相關係數。動脈二氧化碳分壓與潮氣末二氧化碳分壓的極限也同時被偵測動脈二氧化碳分壓與潮氣末二氧化碳分壓(r = 0.94; P < 0.0001) 間有極強的關連性,在潮氣末二氧化碳分壓與血液酸鹼值(r = - 0.90; P < 0.0001)亦然。然而,動脈二氧化碳分壓與潮氣末二氧化碳分壓的一致性則有相當程度的變異。潮氣末二氧化碳分壓的低值, 範圍從18 29 毫米汞柱,超出了一同測量的動脈二氧化碳分壓平均約6.0毫米汞柱(6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg (mean ± SD))。潮氣末二氧化碳分壓的高值,範圍從50 63 毫米汞柱,比二氧化碳動脈分壓平均低了約7.6毫米汞柱(7.6 mm Hg ± 9.8)。在潮氣末二氧化碳分壓在3049 毫米汞柱間時,潮氣末二氧化碳分壓與動脈二氧化碳分壓的差異,平均約為1.0 毫米汞柱 (1.0 mm Hg ± 8.5)。綜合以上結果,對於400克重以上的鳥類,以二氧化碳監測儀可相當準確的估測動脈二氧化碳分壓,同時以Bain系統,進行人工正壓換氣,在我們的研究中,由於血液酸鹼值與潮氣末二氧化碳分壓間存在線性相關,因此建議監測潮氣末二氧化碳分壓,可用以預防呼吸性酸中毒。 

Key words:  anesthesia, avian, birds of prey, capnography, end-tidal CO2. 

關鍵字:麻醉,鳥類,猛禽,二氧化碳檢測器,潮氣末二氧化碳量

譯者:台北動物園 王寶榮獸醫師

 

Pages 7-12

CHARACTERIZATION AND COOLED STORAGE OF SEMEN FROM CORN SNAKES (ELAPHE GUTTATA)

 

Brooke M. Fahrig, M.S., Mark A. Mitchell, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D., Bruce E. Eilts, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.T., and Dale L. Paccamonti, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.T. 

Abstract: The phylogenetic order Squamata has many representatives that may benefit from using semen preservation as a tool for assisting conservation.  To date, there have been few studies evaluating the potential for collecting and preserving semen from snakes.  The objectives of this study were to characterize semen parameters of the corn snake (Elaphe guttata) including appearance, volume, concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology and  to determine the longevity of corn snake sperm motility stored at 4°C.  Single semen samples were collected from twenty-two adult corn snakes.  The appearance of the corn snake semen was generally cloudy, and the color was white to tan.  Corn snake spermatozoa initially exhibited a median motility of 92.5%. Corn snakes were found to produce small volume ejaculates (median: 0.01 ml).  However, the overall concentration of the snake ejaculate was high (x = 852 × 106 ± 585 × 106 spermatozoa/ml).  Morphologically, a mean of 75.7 ± 9.3% of the sperm cells in an ejaculate were normal.  Snake ejaculates that had a white appearance had significantly higher sperm concentrations (x = 1859 × 106 ± 1008 × 106 sperm cells/ml; F = 15.74, P = 0.001) than tan ejaculates (x =  601 × 106 ± 439 × 106 sperm cells/ml).  Sperm motility decreased significantly in samples that were stored at 4°C for greater than 48 hours in a refrigerator or Equitainer I.  This is the first study to characterize semen volume, appearance, and concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology in captive corn snakes.  The information derived from this study can be used to develop a model for a collection, cooled storage, and shipping program for semen from endangered or threatened captive and wild snakes. 

Key words: corn snake, Elaphe guttata, semen, spermatozoa. 
 

玉米蛇(ELAPHE GUTTATA)之精液性狀及冷藏保存

Brooke M. Fahrig, M.S., Mark A. Mitchell, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D., Bruce E. Eilts, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.T., and Dale L. Paccamonti, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.T. 

摘要:有鱗目物種有許多代表性的案例,利用精液保存做為工具,以協助保育工作。迄今只有少數有關蛇類精液採集與保存的效益評估研究報告。本篇報告主題在於研究玉米蛇(Elaphe guttata)精液的特性,包括:精液外觀、量體、濃度、精蟲活力及精蟲形態,以及冷藏保存在4℃下精蟲活力的壽命。由成年的22條玉米蛇各自採集的精液樣本,玉米蛇的精液外觀呈現白色到黃褐色,玉米蛇的精蟲在初期92.5%呈現中等程度活力,玉米蛇的精液射出量很少(平均0.01ml),然而所有蛇的精液濃度都很高(每ml有852 × 106 ± 585 × 106精蟲)。在精蟲形態方面,平均75.7 ± 9.3%的精蟲細胞都是正常的。蛇的精液外觀呈現白色者,精蟲的濃度(x = 1859 × 106 ± 1008 × 106 sperm cells/ml; F = 15.74, P = 0.001)明顯比黃褐色的精液(x =  601 × 106 ± 439 × 106 sperm cells/ml)濃度來的高。在4℃冰箱冷藏保存超過48小時之精蟲活力明顯的降低。本報告所述在圈養CORN SNAKES玉米蛇精液量體、外觀、濃度、精蟲活力及精蟲形態學的特性,為首次發表的研究報告。經由本報告的相關資料可衍生發展出一套模式,應用於瀕危或瀕臨絕種之圈養及野外蛇類的精液採集、冷藏保存、精液運輸計畫。 

關鍵字:玉米蛇(Elaphe guttata) 、精液、精蟲

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師

 

Pages 13-17 

SEMEN COLLECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION IN ROCKHOPPER PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME CHRYSOCOME) 

Jennifer Waldoch, D.V.M., Tammy Root, B.S., Jan Ramer, D.V.M., and Jeffry Proudfoot, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) and in North American institutions these populations are aging (Townley, unpubl. data, 2002). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from Rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male Rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates were collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume and pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (± 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (±.31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 106 sperm/ml (± 48.7 x 106 sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x106 (± 4.2 x 106). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (± 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (± 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (± 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male Rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility compared with Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus),18  indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of Rockhopper penguins. 

Key words:  avian, Eudyptes chrysocome, Rockhopper penguin, semen collection, sperm. 

跳岩企鵝(EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME CHRYSOCOME)精液採集與性狀

Jennifer Waldoch, D.V.M., Tammy Root, B.S., Jan Ramer, D.V.M., and Jeffry Proudfoot, D.V.M. 

摘要:在北美洲各組織中跳岩企鵝族群的年齡多已老化,各圈養族群亦都有授精率、孵化率低下的問題,此一情勢的持續對圈養族群構成挑戰。經由發展一套精液採集與評估的方式,來協助對一個圈養跳岩企鵝族群中,低授精率的原因評估。六隻成年公跳岩企鵝,經過訓練控制,從繁殖季節起,每週採集精液一次,一直到精液內不再含有精蟲為止。從2004年9月17日至12月31日,共採集59次精液。其中45個精液樣本做精液評估,包括精液量體、pH值、精蟲濃度及精蟲性狀(活力、存活率、形態學)。其結果無論在個體間,或在相同個體不同採樣時間上,均有極大的變異。平均活力34.5% (± 22%)、平均精液量0.23 ml (±.31 ml)、平均精蟲濃度16.9 x 106 sperm/ml (± 48.7 x 106 sperm/ml)、每次採集精蟲平均數目1.7 x106 (± 4.2 x 106)、精蟲平均存活率82.9% (± 18.1%)、精蟲平均正常形態82.1% (± 18.8%),精液pH值平均6.47 (± 0.49)。在這一次的繁殖季節裡,只有其中一隻公企鵝與一隻母企鵝配對,並且產下一枚授精蛋。但是在胚胎孵化早期即死亡。公跳岩企鵝精液濃度與活力均較麥哲倫企鵝  (Spheniscus magellanicus)低,因為公企鵝低繁殖力,導致低的授精率。本研究為改善圈養跳岩企鵝繁殖率的相關研究跨出了第一步。 

關鍵字:鳥類、跳岩企鵝 (Eudyptes chrysocomeRockhopper penguin)精液採集、精蟲

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師 

 

Pages 18-26 

A serologic assessment of exposure to viral pathogens and Leptospira in an urban raccoon (PROCYON LOTOR) population inhabiting a large zoological park  

Randall E. Junge, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M, Karen Bauman, B.S., Melanie King, B.S. and Matthew E. Gompper, Ph.D. 

Abstract: In urban environments, raccoons (Procyon lotor) may act as reservoirs for an array of pathogenic organisms, presenting spill-over risks for human, domestic animal, and captive (zoo) animal populations.  Over five years, 159 raccoons were surveyed from a high-density raccoon population in St. Louis, Missouri, USA for exposure to  canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 1 (CAV-1); feline parvovirus (FPV; = feline panleukopenia), and several serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to each of the viruses and two Leptospira serovars (grippotyphosa and icterohemorrhagiae) was detected (prevalence of CDV = 54.1%; FPV = 49.7%; CAV-1 = 6.9%; L. i. icterohemorrhagiae = 8.9%; L. i. grippotyphosa = 6.3%). Eighty percent of raccoons showed evidence of exposure to at least one of the five primary pathogens, and 39% were positive to multiple species.  Among the viruses, there was a significant co-occurrence of CDV and CAV-1. Longitudinal data on a subset of animals revealed that among individuals who were diagnosed as seropositive on first capture, 33-100% became seronegative for the pathogen of interest when reexamined at a later date. Thus, free-ranging urban raccoons have been exposed to multiple infectious agents, some of which may pose risks to humans and non-vaccinated domestic and captive animal populations. 

Key words:  Adenovirus, canine distemper, leptospirosis, raccoon, parvovirus, Procyon lotor. 

居住於都市大型動物園內浣熊族群病毒性病原及鉤端螺旋體之血清學調 

Randall E. Junge, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M, Karen Bauman, B.S., Melanie King, B.S. and Matthew E. Gompper, Ph.D. 

摘要:在都市的環境裡,浣熊常是多種病原菌的帶原者,並對人類、家畜及圈養之(動物園)動物帶來感染的危險。在過去五年中,從美國聖路易斯、密蘇里之浣熊高密度族群,抽樣監測了159 隻浣熊,針對犬瘟熱病毒、犬腺病毒、貓傳染性小病毒(貓泛白血病)及鉤端螺旋體的多種血清型做檢測。對於多種病毒及兩種鉤端螺旋體血清型接觸史的監測結果為:盛行率為犬瘟熱病毒=54.1%、貓小病毒=49.7%、犬腺病毒=6.9%、鉤端螺旋體L. i. icterohemorrhagiae = 8.9% L. i. grippotyphosa = 6.3%;80% 的浣熊顯示曾曝露於五種病原中至少一種的病原,而39% 的浣熊對多種的病原呈現陽性反應。在這些病毒裡,其中犬瘟熱病毒與犬腺病毒有明顯的關聯性;以個體分群資料分析顯示,在第一次捕捉血清學檢測呈陽性者,有33-100% 的個體,經過一段時間後再次檢查會呈陰性。因此,自由生活於都市的浣熊,可能都曾曝露於多種病原,其中有些可能對人類、未施打疫苗之家畜及圈養的動物族群造成危機。 

關鍵字:腺病毒、犬瘟熱、鉤端螺旋體、浣熊、小病毒

譯者:台北動物園 余珍芳獸醫師 

 

Pages 27-31 

EVALUATION OF CONTROL AND TREATMENT OF GONGYLONEMA SPP. INFECTIONS IN CALLITRICHIDS 

Michael J. Adkesson, D.V.M., Jennifer N. Langan, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Allan Paul, D.V.M., M.S. 

Abstract:  Numerous cases of Gongylonema spp. infection with associated pathological lesions and clinical signs were identified in a collection of Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii) (GM) at a zoological park during a three year period.  An increase in the incidence of clinical signs in the GM and other callitrichid species, prompted an investigation to determine the prevalence of infection within the collection and evaluate treatment protocols.  Twenty-one callitrichids (nine GM, four golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), six cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), and two golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) were included in this study.  Many of the animals had been positively diagnosed on past examinations.  Repeated cytological evaluations of scrapings taken from the mucosa of the tongue were performed to diagnose infection.  The animals were randomly divided into two groups and treated with either ivermectin (290 μg/kg, p.o. q7 days for 4 doses) or mebendazole (70 mg/kg, p.o. q24 hr for 3 doses).  Follow-up scrapings were performed on all animals at days 35, 64, and 156.  Numerous animals displayed clinical signs (facial pruritis, inflammation, and ptyalism) prior to and throughout the investigation; however, Gongylonema spp. infections were only confirmed by tongue scrapings in two animals.  Fecal floatation using a sodium nitrate solution for recovery of spirurid eggs was also performed, but yielded no positive results.  The low number of confirmed cases precluded comparative evaluation of the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatment protocols.  However, both regimes appeared subjectively similar in decreasing clinical signs and were safe with no adverse effects.  Diagnosis of Gongylonema spp. infection is challenging, even when severe clinical signs are present.  This investigation further demonstrates the lack of a reliable ante-mortem test for the parasite and underscores the importance of treatment based on clinical signs.  Until a more sensitive test is available, further comparison studies on treatment regimes will be difficult and likely unrewarding. 

Key words:  Gongylonema, spirurid, Goeldi’s monkey, Callimico goeldii, callitrichid. 

狨科動物感染圓絲蟲之治療及控制方法之評估

Michael J. Adkesson, D.V.M., Jennifer N. Langan, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Allan Paul, D.V.M., M.S. 

摘要:某一動物園,在三年期間,其猴狨科的族群,陸續發生了不少的圓絲蟲感染病歷,且都出現臨床症狀及病理病灶。隨著臨床案例不斷的在猴狨及其他狨科動物出現,促成這項調查研究的展開,嘗試了解族群內的盛行率及評估治療的流程。21 隻狨科動物(9隻猴狨,4 隻金毛獅狨,6隻棉頭絹猴,2 隻金頭獅狨)為此研究之對象。許多個體皆已被診斷為陽性。經由多次的刮取動物舌部之黏膜,重複進行細胞學的檢測以進行確診。動物隨機分成兩組,每組分別以害禍滅(Ivermectin  290 μg/kg, 口服,每七天一次,給予四次。) ,或是美鞭達挫( mebendazole  70 mg/kg, 口服,每24 小時一次,共給3 次。)。接著所有動物於給藥後第35 天、64天及156 天做採樣,許多的動物在調查前及調查中,都已出現臨床症狀(臉部搔癢、發炎及有分泌物),然而圓絲蟲只在兩隻動物之舌頭括取樣本檢測中確診。以飽和硝酸鈉做糞便浮游法,鏡檢螺旋狀的蟲卵也同時進行,但卻沒有陽性的結果;因為如此低的確診病例,使得驅蟲治療方針是否有效而無法比較評估,然而在主觀上認為,兩種投藥方式皆能降低臨床症狀,且此投藥法對動物是安全無副作用的。即便是動物已呈現嚴重的症狀圓絲蟲的診斷仍是相當具挑戰性。這項調查進一步顯示,動物在生前,由於缺乏對圓絲蟲可靠的檢測方式,治療的有效性,只能倚靠臨床症狀為基礎;除非能有更敏感的檢測方法,進一步比較治療方針的研究,仍是困難且不易有答案。 

關鍵字:圓絲蟲、旋尾線虫、猴狨(Callimico goeldii)、狨科

譯者:台北動物園 余珍芳獸醫師 

 

Pages 32-41 

AMYLOIDOSIS IN TWO STEJNEGER’S BEAKED WHALES (MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI) STRANDED AT THE SEA OF JAPAN 

Yuko Tajima, D.V.M., Ph.D., Akinori Shimada, D.V.M., Ph.D., Tadasu K. Yamada, Ph.D., and Daniel F. Cowan, M.D., C.M. 

Abstract:  Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the tissue deposition of autologous extracellular fibrillar proteins which can result in compression of adjacent tissues. Amyloidosis is well-recognized in a wide variety of animals including mammals, birds and reptiles. However, to date, there is only one report of amyloidosis in cetaceans. During 1999 and 2000, among 12 Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) that were stranded along the Sea of Japan’s coast, amyloidosis was found in two animals (Case 1: 498cm, male; and Case 2: 520cm, female). For this study population, the prevalence rate of amyloidosis was approximately 17%. These two animals were considered physically and sexually mature based on body length, external features, gonad characteristics and skeletal features. Livers were notably swollen, fragile and pale (brownish yellow) on gross examination. A large deposit of amyloid was found in Disse’s spaces along with marked atrophy of the hepatocytes. Numerous granulomas, including many nematodes (Crassicauda sp.), were found along with amyloid deposition in the kidneys. Amyloid was also detected in the heart, spleen, adrenal gland and pancreas. Amyloid in both cases was identified by typical morphology on H&E and Congo red staining. Electron microscopy displayed a typical network of fine fibrils measuring about 11 nm in diameter. This is the first report of amyloidosis in two Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri), stranded on the coast of the Sea of Japan. 

Key words: amyloidosis, whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri, stranding, amyloid, cetacean. 

兩隻在日本海岸擱淺的史氏中喙鯨(Stejneger’s beaked whales)類澱粉沉著症

Yuko Tajima, D.V.M., Ph.D., Akinori Shimada, D.V.M., Ph.D., Tadasu K. Yamada, Ph.D., and Daniel F. Cowan, M.D., C.M. 

摘要:類澱粉沉著症的特徵是在細胞外自體產生纖維狀的蛋白質,造成對鄰近組織擠壓所造成的疾病。類澱粉沉著症在許多動物(靈長類、鳥類及爬蟲類)都可發現。但迄今,資料顯示在鯨類動物只有一個病例被報告過。在1999~2000年間,12隻擱淺在日本海岸的史氏中喙鯨(Stejneger’s beaked whales),其中兩隻發現有類澱粉沉著症(第一例:雄性、體長498公分;第二例:雌性、體長520公分)。依據盛行率來看,類澱粉沉著症發生的比例約為17%。這兩隻個體依其體長、外觀、生殖腺的特徵及骨骼的狀態,可以判定為成年的個體。肝臟外觀明顯的腫大、易碎及蒼白(褐黃色)。在狄氏空隙可發現大量的類澱粉沉澱物,並且伴隨著明顯的肝細胞萎縮。沿著腎臟的類澱粉沉著還伴隨著多量的肉芽腫,其中還包含許多的線虫(Crassicauda sp.)。類澱粉沉著也在心臟、脾臟、腎上腺及胰臟都可以發現。這兩個病例都是採用H&E及 Congo red 染色的典型型態學上的特徵來確認是類澱粉沉著。在電子顯微鏡下,則呈現直徑11nm纖細的纖維網狀物的典型類澱粉物質。本篇是擱淺於日本海岸的史氏中喙鯨首次發現類澱粉沉著症的報告。 

關鍵字:類澱粉沉著症、鯨、史氏中喙鯨(Mesoplodon stejnegeri)、擱淺、類澱粉、鯨豚

譯者:台北動物園 連振曄獸醫師 

 

Pages 42-50 

SEROSURVEY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS OF CARNIVORES IN CAPTIVE RED PANDAS (AILURUS FULGENS) IN CHINA 

Qin Qin, M.S., Fuwen Wei, Ph.D., Ming Li, Ph.D., Edward J. Dubovi, Ph.D., and I. Kati Loeffler, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Abstract:  The future of the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. The present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species’ home regions.  Serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east and northeast China from October to December 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) in the three facilities in which red pandas were vaccinated were highly variable. The CAV titer in one vaccinated red panda was high enough to suggest infection with the field virus following vaccination. Together with anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated morbidity and mortality, our results suggest that the Chinese vaccine is not suitable for this species. In the seven unvaccinated groups, CDV titers were low and occurred in 20 to 100% of the animals; antibody titers against CPV were found in 7/8 areas. Only 1/61 and 2/61 unvaccinated red pandas had CAV and CCV titers, respectively, and these titers were all low.  Positive titers to Toxoplasma gondii were found in four locations (33 - 94% seropositive); the titers in 52% of seropositive individuals were of a magnitude consistent with active disease in other species (1:1,024 to ≥ 1:4,096). One red panda in each of three locations was seropositive for Neospora caninum. Antibodies against canine herpesvirus and Brucella canis were not detected in any of the samples. Only one of the 73 red pandas had a weak positive Influenza A titer. The results of this study emphasize the need for research on and protection against infectious diseases of red pandas and other endangered species in China. 

 

Key words:  Red panda, Ailurus fulgens, serosurvey, infectious diseases, China. 

中國圈養小熊貓(AILURUS FULGENS)傳染性食肉目疾病病原之血清學調查

Qin Qin, M.S., Fuwen Wei, Ph.D., Ming Li, Ph.D., Edward J. Dubovi, Ph.D., and I. Kati Loeffler, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

摘要:瀕臨絕種的小熊貓(Ailurus fulgens)的未來,有一部分必須依靠發展保護的方法以對抗傳染病。現階段的研究是嘗試了解,在原棲地傳染性疾病的情形。2004 年十月至十二月間,於中國西南部、東部及東北部的十個圈養機構,取得了73 隻小貓熊的血清樣本,針對為九種食肉目動物常見的傳染性疾病,進行抗體反應檢測。在三個小貓熊已接種過疫苗的機構中,其對於犬瘟熱病毒、犬小病毒、犬腺病毒的抗體力價,檢測結果差異很大。其中一隻接種過疫苗之小貓熊,其對犬腺病毒的力價高到,被認為在接種疫苗後,仍受到野外毒的感染。參考有關疫苗接種的發病率與死亡率未發表的紀錄,我們的結果認為,中國產的疫苗並不適用於此種動物。在七個未接種疫苗的樣本群裏,有20-100% 的動物顯示有低的犬瘟熱抗體力價;而犬小病毒的抗體力價可見於7/8 的地區。只有1/612/61 未接種疫苗的小貓熊,有犬腺病毒及CCV力價,且如預期的,這些力價都很低。弓蟲(Toxoplasma gondii)的陽性力價在4 個地區有發現(33-94% 血清陽性)。其中52% 的血清陽性的個體,抗體力價顯著,此在其他的動物是被認定為感染中所致(1:1,024 to ≥ 1:4,096)。在三個地區中皆有一隻小貓熊是對孢子蟲(Neospora caninum 呈血清陽性反應。所有檢體皆未測出犬疱疹病毒及犬布氏桿菌抗體。73隻個體中,只有一隻對流行性感冒A 病毒呈弱陽性反應。這項研究的結果顯示,有關小熊貓及中國其他瀕臨絕種物種的相關研究,及傳染病防護的重要性。 

關鍵字:小熊貓(Ailurus fulgens)、血清學調查、傳染性疾病、中國

譯者:台北動物園 余珍芳獸醫師

 

Pages 51-54 

PLASMA PHARMACOKINETICS OF SELAMECTIN AFTER A SINGLE TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION IN THE AMERICAN BULLFROG (RANA CATESBEIANA). 

Jennifer J. D’Agostino, D.V.M., Gary West, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Dawn M. Boothe, M.S., D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M., Dipl. A.C.V.C.P., Prashanth K. Jayanna, D.V.M., Timothy Snider, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and John P. Hoover, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.B.V.P., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M. 

Abstract:  Parasitism is common in wild and captive amphibians, however, pharmacologic data are lacking for anthelmintic drugs.    This study was developed to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after topical administration in bullfrogs.  Thirty-two adult American bullfrogs were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 4 with each group representing a different collection time point.  Seven groups received selamectin (6 mg/kg) topically and the remaining group served as the untreated control group.  One group of frogs was euthanized and blood samples immediately collected on days 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30.  Plasma was analyzed for selamectin using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  Individual samples were analyzed then data were reported as the mean of the 4 frogs at each time point.  A histological evaluation of the lung, liver, kidney and skin tissues was performed and none of the frogs showed histologic evidence of toxicity due to selamectin administration.  The mean peak plasma concentration was 162.5 ± 42.3 ng/ml, area under the curve was 2856 ng*day/ml, mean residence time was 12.2 days, and disappearance half-life was 1.87 days.  Based on the plasma pharmacokinetics, bullfrogs appear to absorb selamectin very efficiently, concentrations reach high levels in the plasma, and there were no apparent histologic effects from single dose administration. 

Key words:  American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, selamectin, pharmacokinetics, amphibian. 

美國牛蛙(RANA CATESBEIANA)局部投予單一劑量的selametin的血漿動力學研究

Jennifer J. D’Agostino, D.V.M., Gary West, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Dawn M. Boothe, M.S., D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M., Dipl. A.C.V.C.P., Prashanth K. Jayanna, D.V.M., Timothy Snider, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., and John P. Hoover, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.B.V.P., Dipl. A.C.V.I.M. 

摘要:寄生蟲在野生和圈養的兩棲類是很常見的疾病,然而在驅蟲藥的藥物學資料方面卻很缺乏,因此本研究的目的是希望知道在牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)經單一劑量投予SELAMETIN 後的藥物動力學變化。本研究總共使用32隻成年美國牛蛙,隨機分成八組,每組四隻,提供在不同的時間點做採樣。七組局部投予SELEMETIN6 mg/kg),另一組當作控制組,在第0天(控制組)及 151015202530天分別將一組牛蛙樂死後分別採取血樣。使用高效能液相層析儀及螢光檢測分析血漿中的SELAMETIN濃度。分析每一隻動物的樣本,所得數據為每一時間點四隻牛蛙的平均數値。從肺臟、肝臟、腎臟及皮膚組織的組織學評估發現,並沒有任何一隻牛蛙有由於投予 SELAMETIN導致毒性反應。血漿的平均濃度為162.5±42.3ng/ml,曲線下範圍是2856ng*day/ml,平均殘留時間為12.2天,半衰期為1.87天。經由血漿動力學研究發現,牛蛙對於SELAMETIN的吸收能力效率很強,在血漿中的濃度很高,同時單一劑量的投予對組織並不會造成影響。 

關鍵字:美國牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)selamectin、藥物動力學、兩棲類

譯者:台北動物園 李安興獸醫師 

 

Pages 55-61 

Exploring passive transfer in musk oxEN (Ovibos  moschatus)

Cheryl Rosa, D.V.M., Ph.D., Debra Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D., Matthew J. Gray, Ph.D., Anita Merrill, TammieVann, and John Blake, D.V.M., M.Vet. Sc.

 

Abstract:  Poor calf production and ill thrift in 3-4 mo olds are common limiting problems in raising and maintaining captive musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus). Acute onset of a rapidly progressing enteritis and septicemia in neonatal calves (2-7 days of age) caused by E. coli not normally considered pathogenic in domestic animals is a serious problem in many captive musk oxen facilities. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, total protein, albumin, and globulin levels in captive periparturient muskox females and their neonatal calves were compared to levels found in other species in which these parameters have been well described. Results showed that all females in the study had IgG present in their serum (mean value = 1232.14 mg/dl, S. D. = 178.34 mg/dl, as measured via radial immunodiffusion). Calves were likely born agammaglobulinemic or hypogammaglobulinemic. IgG levels quickly rose in calves after initial colostrum intake to levels similar to those seen in other domestic ruminants.  Our results suggest that passive transfer of immunity in musk oxen is similar to what is reported in domestic livestock and that reference ranges from domestic cattle may be used to assist interpretation of serum IgG levels in musk oxen. In addition, the positive relationship between serum protein and globulin levels with serum IgG levels are similar to that reported for Holstein cattle and, thus, provide useful indicators of passive transfer in musk oxen. 

Key words: IgG, immunoglobulin, musk ox, Ovibos moschatus, passive transfer. 

麝香牛(Ovibos  moschatus)的被動免疫探討

Cheryl Rosa, D.V.M., Ph.D., Debra Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D., Matthew J. Gray, Ph.D., Anita Merrill, TammieVann, and John Blake, D.V.M., M.Vet. Sc. 

摘要:圈養麝香牛(Ovibos moschatus)由於生育率低以及在34月齡時的疾病威脅,因此在照顧及飼養上常發生問題。一般發現 E.  coli在家畜動物的幼畜(2-7日齡)並不認為具有病原性,但是在許多圈飼的新生麝香牛卻會造成很嚴重且急性的腸炎和敗血症問題。比較圈養中生產前的雌性麝香牛個體及其小牛血清中的免疫球蛋白、總蛋白、白蛋白和球蛋白濃度其結果如後。結果顯示所有母畜血清中的IgG濃度(平均值=1232.14mg/dlS.D.178.34 mg/dl,以放射線免疫擴散法檢測),而小牛則一出生免疫球蛋白就處於無到低下的情形;但小牛吃完初乳後免疫球蛋白濃度會很快地上升。我們的研究結果顯示麝香牛的被動免疫移轉和一般的家畜相似,而一般眷養牛隻的參考値,可用來作為評估麝香牛血清中的 IgG濃度的參考。此外,血清中的蛋白質及球蛋白的濃度和血清中的IgG濃度成正相關,這和荷蘭乳牛的報告類似,因此可提供作為麝香牛被動免疫移轉的參考。

關鍵字:IgG、免疫球蛋白、麝香牛(Ovibos moschatus)、被動免疫移轉

譯者:台北動物園 李安興獸醫師 

 

Pages 62-66 

MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF BALD EAGLES (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) AND PEREGRINE FALCONS (Falco peregrinus) ADMITTED TO THE WILDLIFE CENTER OF VIRGINIA, 1993 TO 2003 

M. Camille Harris D.V.M., M.S. and Jonathan M. Sleeman Vet.M.B., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., M.R.C.V.S. 

Abstract:  Medical records from 111 threatened bald eagles (86%: Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and peregrine falcons (14%: Falco peregrinus) admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia from 1993 to 2003 were reviewed to identify submitters, causes of morbidity and mortality, and final disposition. Half of all patients admitted were submitted by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries personnel. Trauma was the most common reason for presentation in bald eagles (70%) and peregrine falcons (81%). Additional causes of morbidity and mortality in bald eagles included toxicoses (10%), infectious diseases (8%) and orphaned young (1%). Neoplasia was confirmed in two trauma cases, suggesting underlying disease might have increased susceptibility to acute traumatic injuries. Peregrine falcons were also admitted for infectious disease (19%). The most frequent infectious disease for both species was West Nile virus. Thirty-nine percent of patients were released back into the wild, 28% were euthanized, 20% died, and 13% were placed in captivity. Post-release monitoring that would determine if rehabilitated animals survived to contribute to threatened populations was not performed in this study.   

Key words:  Bald eagles, Falco peregrinus, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, morbidity, mortality, peregrine falcons. 

西元1993年到2003年間,送往維吉尼亞州野生動物中心的白頭(Haliaeetus leucocephalus)及遊隼(Falco peregrinus)的病況及死亡率

M. Camille Harris D.V.M., M.S. and Jonathan M. Sleeman Vet.M.B., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., M.R.C.V.S. 

摘要:回顧西元1993年到2003年間,被維吉尼亞州野生動物中心確認的111隻瀕臨絕種白頭鷹(86%: Haliaeetus leucocephalus)及遊隼 (14%: Falco peregrinus)的病歷,以確認病因、死因和最後處理方式。半數確認的病例由維吉尼亞州漁獵部門人員提供。創傷是白頭鷹(70%)與遊隼(81%)最常見的原因。此外,白頭鷹致病與致死的原因,包括中毒 (10%), 傳染病(8%) 和孤兒(1%) 。在二個創傷案件中發現有腫瘤,建議這些潛在的疾病,可能增加急性創傷的發生。遊隼也被診斷出有傳染病(19%)。對這兩種鳥而言,最常見的傳染病是西尼羅病毒。所有的病例中,39%的病例被野放, 28%安樂死, 20% 死亡, 13% 被收容圈養。監測野放存活的案例,對瀕危物種復育的貢獻,並未在這項研究中執行。   

關鍵字: 白頭鷹(Falco peregrinus)遊隼(Haliaeetus leucocephalus),病況、死亡率

譯者:台北動物園 王寶榮獸醫師 

 

Pages 67-76 

Biomedical Evaluation of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) in lokobe reserve, madagascar 

Randall E. Junge, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Edward E. Louis, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

Abstract:  Complete medical evaluations were performed on 25 wild black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) in Lokobe Reserve, northwestern Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination. Weight, body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell count; differential white blood cell count; hemoparasite examination; serum biochemical profile; fat-soluble vitamin analysis; trace mineral analysis; and Toxoplasma gondii and viral serology. Fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and endoparasite examination. Ectoparasites were collected and identified. Values were compared to established ranges from captive black lemurs in North American zoos. Significant differences exist between captive and wild animals for total white blood cell count; segmented neutrophil count; band neutrophil count; eosinophil count; monocyte count; and basophil count; and for serum biochemistry values of aspartate aminotransferase; alanine aminotransferase; total bilirubin; serum alkaline phosphatase; total protein; creatinine; phosphorus; calcium; sodium; potassium; and creatine phosphokinase. One animal had a positive Toxoplasma titer. Detected endoparasites were identified as Lemuricola and Callistroura.  Two ectoparasite mites were identified, one within the Psoroptes genus and one within the Laelapidae family. Enteric bacterial flora included Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Klebsiella ozaenae and Bacillus cereus 

Key words: Black lemur, disease, Eulemur macaco macaco, health assessment, Madagascar, nutrition. 

馬達加斯加勒克比保留區黑狐猴(Eulemur macaco macaco)之生物醫學評估

Randall E. Junge, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Edward E. Louis, D.V.M., Ph.D. 

摘要:針對於馬達加斯加西北部的勒克比保留區25 隻野生黑狐猴(Eulemur macaco macaco),所做的完整醫學評估。每一隻動物皆接受了完整的物理檢查,紀錄動物的體重、體溫、心跳速率、呼吸速率。血液樣本採集進行完整的血球計數、白血球分類、血液寄生蟲檢查、血清生化分析、脂溶性維生素分析、微量礦物質分析、弓蟲及病毒血清學檢測。糞便樣本採集來做細菌培養及內寄生蟲檢查;外寄生蟲也加以收集及鑑定。所得的數據與北美多所動物園圈養之黑狐猴做比較。其中野外與圈養族群有顯著差異的項目在:白血球總數、分葉嗜中性球數、帶狀嗜中性球數、嗜酸性球數、單核球數及嗜鹼性球數;以及血清生化中的:天門冬酸鹽轉氨脢(aspartate aminotransferase)、丙氨酸轉氨脢(alanine aminotransferase)、總膽紅素(total bilirubin)、血清鹼性磷酸脢(serum alkaline phosphatase)、總蛋白質、肌酸酐(creatinine)、血磷、血鈣、血鈉、血鉀及肌酸磷酸活脢(creatine phosphokinase)。其中一隻動物對弓蟲抗體力價呈陽性。檢測到的內寄生蟲鑑定為Lemuricola Callistroura;兩種外寄生蟲經鑑定,其中一種屬於Psoroptes屬,而另一種屬於Laelapidae科。消化道細菌叢包括有:腸球菌、葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus)、大腸桿菌(Escherichia coli)、鏈球菌(Streptococcus)、臭鼻桿菌(Klebsiella ozaenae Bacillus cereus 

關鍵字:黑狐猴(Eulemur macaco macaco)、疾病、健康評估、馬達加斯加、營養

譯者:台北動物園 余珍芳獸醫師 

 

Pages 77-84 

SUCCESSIVE CHANGES OF HEMATOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PLASMA CHEMISTRY VALUES OF JUVENILE LOGGERHEAD TURTLES (CARETTA CARETTA) 

Yuka Kakizoe, D.V.M., Ken Sakaoka, Futoshi Kakizoe, Makoto Yoshii, Hitoshi Nakamura, Yoshihiko Kanou, D.V.M., and Itaru Uchida, Ph.D. 

Abstract:  Hematologic characteristics and plasma chemistry values of juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the ages of 1 mo - 3 yr were obtained to establish baseline values. Five clinically normal loggerhead turtles were selected from the same clutch, and raised in an indoor artificial nesting beach. Blood samples were successively collected and examined for various blood characteristics for a maximum total of 15 times. Hematologic characteristics, including packed cell volume, white blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials; and plasma chemistry values, including total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, γ-glutamic transpeptidase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ionized sodium, ionized potassium and ionized chlorine, were measured. These results were used to establish a hematology and blood chemistry baseline for captive juvenile loggerhead turtles and will aid in their medical management. 

Key words: Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, hematology, plasma chemistry. 

幼年赤蠵龜(CARETTA CARETTA)血液學特徵與血漿化學值的連續性變化

Yuka Kakizoe, D.V.M., Ken Sakaoka, Futoshi Kakizoe, Makoto Yoshii, Hitoshi Nakamura, Yoshihiko Kanou, D.V.M., and Itaru Uchida, Ph.D. 

摘要:採集1個月齡到3歲幼年赤蠵龜(Caretta caretta)血液,建立血液學特徵與血漿化學基礎生理值。從同窩選出5隻臨床上正常的赤蠵龜,飼養於室內人造的巢穴海灘中。連續地採集血液檢體,並檢查各種血液學特徵,總數最多達15次。檢測項目血液學特徵包括:血球容積比(PCV)、白血球數與白血球分類;血漿化學值包括:總膽色素、總蛋白、白蛋白、麩草酸轉氨脢 (GOT)、麩丙酮酸轉氨脢(GPT)、丙種麩氨酸轉轉化酶(GGP)、肌酸酐、血中尿素氮(BUN)、尿酸、鹼性磷酸酶 (ALKP)、胰澱粉酶、三酸甘油脂、總膽固醇、鈉離子、鉀離子與氯離子。檢測的結果用以建立圈養幼年赤蠵龜血液學與血液化學基礎值,並有助於未來的醫療管理。 

關鍵字:赤蠵龜(Caretta caretta)、血液學、血漿化學

譯者:台北動物園 賴燕雪獸醫師 
 
 
 

 

Pages 85-92 

METABOLIC BONE DISEASE IN JUVENILE HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI): INVESTIGATION OF IONIZED CALCIUM, PARATHYROID HORMONE, AND VITAMIN D3 AS DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS 

Michael J. Adkesson, D.V.M. and Jennifer N. Langan D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

Abstract:  Three cases of metabolic bone disease (MBD) were identified in juvenile Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in a zoological collection.  Diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment were challenging, in part because radiographs and traditional serum biochemistries did not provide adequate information to guide appropriate clinical management.  Normal values for ionized calcium (iCa), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-[OH] D3), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) have not been reported for any species in the order Sphenisciformes.  This study aimed to establish reference ranges for these parameters to provide a method for assessing clinical cases of MBD and other disease processes.  Ionized calcium was measured in 33 healthy adult birds from two zoological collections using a portable clinical analyzer.  Ionized calcium was also measured from 14 of these birds at a commercial laboratory.  Mean and standard deviation were determined to be 1.21 + 0.09 mmol/L and 1.29 + 0.10 mmol/L,  respectively.  Limited data exist on iCa in avian species, but these results are consistent with other reports and provide a useful clinical parameter.  Analysis of PTH and 25-[OH] D3 was performed at a commercial laboratory on samples from 14 healthy adult penguins in one collection.  Means and standard deviations for PTH and 25-[OH] D3 were 0.8 + 0.3 pmol/L and 3.7  + 2.4 nmol/L, respectively.  These results are near the minimal functional detectable limits of the assays; raising uncertainty about the validity and usefulness of currently available PTH and 25-[OH] D3 tests in this species.   

Key words:  Humboldt penguin, ionized calcium, metabolic bone disease, parathyroid hormone, Spheniscus humboldti, vitamin D3. 

幼年漢波德企鵝 (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI)的代謝性骨病:以離子鈣、副甲狀腺素、和維生素D3作為參數的調查 

Michael J. Adkesson, D.V.M. and Jennifer N. Langan D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M.

摘要:三個代謝性骨病(metabolic bone disease MBD)案例,在一個動物園中的幼年漢波德企鵝(Spheniscus humboldti)診。由於放射線影像和傳統血清生化值,仍無法提供適當的資訊,作為臨床處置的指標;因此在診斷、監測和治療上,仍舊是一項挑戰,。在企鵝目中的所有種類,在離子鈣(iCa)、維他命D325-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-[OH ] D3)和副甲狀腺荷爾蒙(PTH)的正常值,至今並無報告可供參考。本研究的目的,以建立這些參數的參考值,供臨床MBD及其他疾病的評估應用。從兩個動物園33隻健康成鳥取得的樣本,以攜帶式分析儀,測量離子鈣值。其中14隻的離子鈣值,也送往商業實驗室檢測。平均值和標準差分別是1.21 + 0.09 mmol/L 1.29 + 0.10 mmol/L。鳥類離子鈣的現有資料有限,但這些結果與其它報告是一致的,提供一個有用的臨床參數。在商業實驗室,針對來自同一個園,14隻成年健康的企鵝,所提供樣本進行PTH 25-[OH ] D3的分析。PTH 25-[OH ] D3的平均值與標準差,分別是0.8 +0.3 pmol/L 3.7 + 2.4 nmol/L。這些結果接近分析儀最小的檢測極限;增加了這個物種,應用一般PTH 25-[OH ] D3檢測方法的有效性和可用性的不確定性。   

關鍵字:漢波德企鵝(Spheniscus humboldti)、離子鈣、代謝性骨病、副甲狀腺素、維生素D3

譯者:台北動物園 王寶榮獸醫師 

 

Pages 93-96 

Contagious Caprine PLEUROPNEUMONIA OUTBREAK IN captive wild ungulates AT Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar 

Abdi Arif, B.V.Sc, M. Sc., Julia Schulz, Dr .Vet . Med , François Thiaucourt , D.V.M. PhD, Abid Taha, B. S. c. and Sven Hammer, Dr.Vet . Med. 

Abstract: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goats (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica) and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings, and confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species especially in the Middle East where it is enzootic due to its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping. 

Key words: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, wild goat, gerenuk, Nubian ibex, PCR.

卡塔爾國 AL 瓦布拉野生動物保護中心有蹄類圈養區爆發傳染性山羊胸膜肺炎

Abdi Arif, B.V.Sc, M. Sc., Julia Schulz, Dr .Vet . Med , François Thiaucourt , D.V.M. PhD, Abid Taha, B. S. c. and Sven Hammer, Dr.Vet . Med.

摘要:山羊傳染性胸膜肺炎(CCPP)是由Mycoplasma capricolum 的亞型capripneumonia 造成,在家山羊是一具有高傳染性及嚴重的呼吸道疾病,主要症狀為:咳嗽、嚴重的呼吸窘迫和高死亡率。解剖後主要的病灶為:纖維素性胸膜肺炎及大量的稻草色胸水。在卡塔爾國的AL瓦布拉野生動物保護區的野生山羊(Capra aegagrus)、努比亞野生山羊Capra ibex)、拉雷斯坦 野羊Ovis orientalis laristanica)和長頸羚Litocranius wallei爆發了山羊傳染性胸膜肺炎。由於臨床症狀及解剖結果,懷疑是此病的感染;在分離及確認病原後,證實為此病的發生。此新發現指出山羊傳染性胸膜肺炎對於在野生動物及保護區內,特別是在中東地區,由於會有慢性的帶原者,因此會造成流行性疾病,對於瀕臨絕種的反芻獸具有很大的威脅性。進口的動物有懷疑感染,就必須隔離檢疫及施打疫苗。採樣診斷最好的樣本是胸水,因為此處會有高量的黴漿菌;另外就是正常及發病部位間肝樣化的肺組織切面。樣品必須儘快送到診斷實驗室,在運輸過程也必須維持在冷藏的環境下。

關鍵字:山羊傳染性胸膜肺炎(Mycoplasma capricolum subsp., Capripneumonia)、野生山羊、長頸羚努比亞野羊、聚合酶鏈式反應

譯者:台北動物園 李安興獸醫師

 

Pages 97-100

 

TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI INFECTIONS IN HIMALAYAN BLACK BEARS (Selenarctos thibetanus)

G. MUHAMMAD, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons.), Ph.D. M. SAQIB, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons), M. S. SAJID, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons), and A. NAUREEN, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons).

Abstract: The Asiatic or Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) is an endangered species. In south Asian countries, captive tamed Himalayan bears are commonly used by roving bear-charmers to entertain the people in rural and urban areas. In captivity, this species confronts several psychophysical traumas and communicable diseases, which are prevalent in other domestic species. The present report describes four cases of Trypanosoma evansi infection in live Himalayan charming bears, which originated from the Faisalabad and Jhang districts of Pakistan.  The condition was characterized by pyrexia, accelerated pulse, tachypnea, depression, anemic mucous membranes and ataxia (n = 3). Microscopic examination of peripheral blood films revealed moderate (n = 2) or high (n = 2) numbers of Trypanosoma evansi. All four bears were treated twice at 3-day intervals with suramin sodium using almost twice the dose recommended for common domestic animals (10 mg/kg). The treated bears were found aparasitemic on repeat blood testing on days 5, 7 and 10 post-treatment. No adverse effects were noted and all four cases recovered in 3-7 days after completion of the second round of treatment. One bear died 8 days after the second treatment (day 11). This is the first report of T. evansi in bears.
Key words: Himalayan black bear, Naganol, Pakistan, Selenarctos thibetanus, suramin sodium, Trypanosoma evansi
 

喜馬拉雅黑熊(Selenarctos thibetanus)的伊氏錐蟲感染

G. MUHAMMAD, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons.), Ph.D. M. SAQIB, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons), M. S. SAJID, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons), and A. NAUREEN, D.V.M., M.Sc. (Hons).

摘要:亞洲或喜馬拉雅黑熊(Selenarctos thibetanus)是瀕臨絕種的物種。在南亞國家,圈養馴服的喜馬拉雅熊常被巡迴在鄉村或都市之間的馴熊師用來娛樂大眾。在圈養狀態下,這種動物面臨許多身心創傷及盛行於其他家畜的傳染病傷害。這篇報告描述了四個在巴基斯坦費薩拉巴德及Jhang區的喜馬拉雅熊,感染伊氏錐蟲的病例。症狀包括發熱、心搏加速、呼吸加快、精神沉鬱、貧血性的黏膜及運動失調(n=3)。週邊血液抹片的鏡檢發現中量(n=2)或高量(n=2)的伊氏錐蟲。所有的熊以三天的間隔給予兩次蘇拉明納 (suramin sodium)進行治療,劑量相當兩倍於建議用在家畜的量(10 mg/kg)。治療過的熊,在治療後重複在第5、7及第10天的血液檢測中,皆無寄生蟲被發現。在完成第二輪的治療後的3至7天內,所有的熊都恢復,而且沒有出現副作用。有一隻熊在第二輪的治療後八天(第十一天)死亡。這是第一個熊的伊氏錐蟲感染報告。

關鍵字:喜馬拉雅黑熊(Selenarctos thibetanus)、納加諾(Naganol, 銻劑)、巴基斯坦、蘇拉明納 (suramin sodium)、伊氏錐蟲

譯者:台北動物園 郭俊成獸醫師 

 

Pages 101-107 

TWO CASES OF ATYPICAL MYCOBACTERIOSIS CAUSED BY MYCOBACTERIUM SZULGAI ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY IN CAPTIVE AFRICAN ELEPHANTS (LOXODONTA AFRICANA)  

Claude Lacasse, D.V.M., Karen Terio, D.V.M, Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P, Michael. J. Kinsel, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Lisa L. Farina, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P, Dominic A. Travis, D.V.M., M.S., Rena Greenwald, M.D., Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Ph.D., Michele Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D., and Kathryn C. Gamble, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M.

Abstract:  Mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Lincoln Park Zoo.  The first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb.  Despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation.  Necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional M. szulgai.  The second elephant collapsed during transport to another institution with no premonitory clinical signs.  This animal was euthanized due to prolonged recumbency.  Granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional M. szulgai was found at necropsy.    Two novel immunoassays performed on banked serum samples detected antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in both infected elephants.  It was not possible to determine when the infection was established or how the elephants were infected.  When reviewing the epidemiology of this organism in humans, however, transmission between elephants seemed unlikely since human-to-human transmission of this organism has never been reported and a third elephant in the herd was not affected.  In addition to M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial organisms need to be considered potentially pathogenic in elephants.

Key words: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, atypical mycobacteriosis, Mycobacterium szulgai, osteoarthritis, pneumonia.

 

兩隻圈養非洲象(LOXODONTA AFRICANA)感染非典型分枝桿菌症之病例報告

Claude Lacasse, D.V.M., Karen Terio, D.V.M, Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P, Michael. J. Kinsel, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Lisa L. Farina, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P, Dominic A. Travis, D.V.M., M.S., Rena Greenwald, M.D., Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Ph.D., Michele Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D., and Kathryn C. Gamble, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. 

摘要:飼養於林肯動物園的兩隻非洲象(Loxodonta africana),因感染分枝桿菌症Mycobacterium szulgai死亡。第一隻發病的非洲象,呈現嚴重的急性左後肢跛腳,雖經多方的治療,仍於發病13個月後衰竭死亡。病理解剖顯現:骨髓炎伴隨有股骨頭與髀臼關節的流失、肺臟的肉芽腫病變中有分枝桿菌M. szulgai。第二隻非洲象在運輸到另一個機構途中倒下,發病前並未見臨床徵兆。最後由於長時間的躺臥不起而進行安樂死,病理解剖亦發現:肉芽腫性的肺臟病變中,有分枝桿菌M. szulgai。這兩隻受到感染的大象的血清庫樣本,在進行新的免疫分析後,均測出對分枝桿菌抗原之抗體反應。至於這兩隻大象是何時被感染的、如何被感染的,已經不太可能查證。當我們回顧此類分枝桿菌在人的流行病學裡,大象間的傳染,雖不如人與人之間的相互傳染,未曾被報告過;但是在同一族群中的第三隻大象,並未受到影響。除了M. bovis M. tuberculosis之外,非典型的分枝桿菌在大象亦需要被認為具有潛在的病原性。

關鍵字:非洲象(Loxodonta africana)、非典型分枝桿菌症、Mycobacterium szulgai、骨關節炎、肺炎

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師 
 

 

Pages 108-113 

AMYLOIDOSIS IN TWO STEJNEGER’S BEAKED WHALES (MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI) STRANDED AT THE SEA OF JAPAN 

Yuko Tajima, D.V.M., Ph.D., Akinori Shimada, D.V.M., Ph.D., Tadasu K. Yamada, Ph.D., and Daniel F. Cowan, M.D., C.M.

Abstract:  Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the tissue deposition of autologous extracellular fibrillar proteins which can result in compression of adjacent tissues. Amyloidosis is well-recognized in a wide variety of animals including mammals, birds and reptiles. However, to date, there is only one report of amyloidosis in cetaceans. During 1999 and 2000, among 12 Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) that were stranded along the Sea of Japan’s coast, amyloidosis was found in two animals (Case 1: 498cm, male; and Case 2: 520cm, female). For this study population, the prevalence rate of amyloidosis was approximately 17%. These two animals were considered physically and sexually mature based on body length, external features, gonad characteristics and skeletal features. Livers were notably swollen, fragile and pale (brownish yellow) on gross examination. A large deposit of amyloid was found in Disse’s spaces along with marked atrophy of the hepatocytes. Numerous granulomas, including many nematodes (Crassicauda sp.), were found along with amyloid deposition in the kidneys. Amyloid was also detected in the heart, spleen, adrenal gland and pancreas. Amyloid in both cases was identified by typical morphology on H&E and Congo red staining. Electron microscopy displayed a typical network of fine fibrils measuring about 11 nm in diameter. This is the first report of amyloidosis in two Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri), stranded on the coast of the Sea of Japan. 

Key words: Amyloidosis, whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri, stranding, amyloid, cetacean. 

兩隻在日本海岸擱淺的史氏中喙鯨(MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI)類澱粉沉著症

Yuko Tajima, D.V.M., Ph.D., Akinori Shimada, D.V.M., Ph.D., Tadasu K. Yamada, Ph.D., and Daniel F. Cowan, M.D., C.M. 

摘要:類澱粉沉著症的特徵是在細胞外自體產生纖維狀的蛋白質,造成對鄰近組織擠壓所造成的疾病。類澱粉沉著症在許多動物(靈長類、鳥類及爬蟲類)都可發現。但迄今,資料顯示在鯨類動物只有一個病例被報告過。在1999~2000年間,12隻擱淺在日本海岸的史氏中喙鯨(Mesoplodon stejnegeri),其中兩隻發現有類澱粉沉著症(第一例:雄性、體長498公分;第二例:雌性、體長520公分)。依據盛行率來看,類澱粉沉著症發生的比例約為17%。這兩隻個體依其體長、外觀、生殖腺的特徵及骨骼的狀態,可以判定為成年的個體。肝臟外觀明顯的腫大、易碎及蒼白(褐黃色)。在狄氏空隙可發現大量的類澱粉沉澱物,並且伴隨著明顯的肝細胞萎縮。沿著腎臟的類澱粉沉著還伴隨著多量的肉芽腫,其中還包含許多的線虫(Crassicauda sp.)。類澱粉沉著也在心臟、脾臟、腎上腺及胰臟都可以發現。這兩個病例都是採用H&E及 Congo red 染色的典型型態學上的特徵來確認是類澱粉沉著。在電子顯微鏡下,則呈現直徑11nm纖細的纖維網狀物的典型類澱粉物質。本篇是擱淺於日本海岸的  Stejneger’s  beaked whales首次發現類澱粉沉著症的報告。 

關鍵字:類澱粉沉著症、鯨、史氏中喙鯨(Mesoplodon stejnegeri)、擱淺、類澱粉、鯨豚

譯者:台北動物園 連振曄獸醫師 

 

Pages 114-120 

URATE NEPHROLITHIASIS IN A NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL (MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS) AND A CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) 

Sophie Dennison BVM&S MRCVS, Frances Gulland VetMB PhD MRCVS, Martin Haulena DVM MSc, Helio De Morais DVM PhD Dip. ACVIM, and Kathleen Colegrove DVM Dip. ACVP.    

Abstract:  Nephrolithiasis has rarely been reported in marine mammals. During 2004 and 2005, two cases of nephrolithiasis were diagnosed during routine necropsy examination, one in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and one in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Nephroliths were found throughout both kidneys during necropsy examination, varying in size from 1 mm to 10 mm in diameter in the northern elephant seal, and from 1 mm to 15 mm in the California sea lion. Necropsy and histopathology revealed nephroliths in association with renal pelvic dilation and pyelonephritis in both animals. In addition, hydronephrosis was noted in the sea lion. Nephroliths were composed of uric acid and ammonium urate in the northern elephant seal, and of ammonium urate in the California sea lion. The underlying disease leading to nephrolith formation was not determined; however, it is hypothesized that unknown metabolic derangements due to morphological or physiological differences may have played a role. This is the first report of urate nephrolithiasis in the California sea lion and northern elephant seal. 

Key words:  California sea lion, Mirounga angustirostris, northern elephant seal, nephrolithiasis, urate nephrolith, Zalophus californianus. 

北方海象(MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS)與加州海獅(ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)的尿酸鹽性腎結石

Sophie Dennison BVM&S MRCVS, Frances Gulland VetMB PhD MRCVS, Martin Haulena DVM MSc, Helio De Morais DVM PhD Dip. ACVIM, and Kathleen Colegrove DVM Dip. ACVP.   

摘要:腎結石在海洋哺乳類中是很少被報告。在20042005年間,有二例海洋哺乳類腎結石的病例,在例行的屍解時發現,一隻是北方海象(Mirounga angustirostris)、另一隻是加州海獅(Zalophus californianus)。兩個病例在屍解時,都發現兩側腎臟都有大小不一的結石:北方海象為1到10mm直徑的結石;加州海獅則為1到15mm不等大小的結石。病理解剖及組織病理學檢查,都顯示出兩隻動物的結石,都與腎盂擴張及腎盂腎炎有關。另外,海獅還發現有水腎的情形。腎結石的成分在北美海象為尿酸及尿酸銨組成,在加州海獅則為尿酸銨。造成結石的病因我們並未確認;但是,基於形態學或生理學上的差異,所導致的代謝異常,可能扮演重要的腳色。這是首次在北方海象及加州海獅尿酸鹽腎結石病的報告。

關鍵字:加州海獅(Zalophus californianus)北方海象(Mirounga angustirostris)腎結石症、尿酸鹽腎結石

譯者:台北動物園 連振曄獸醫師

 

Pages 121-124 

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma in an Immature Baird’s Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) 

Christopher J. Bonar, V.M.D., Albert H. Lewandowski, D.V.M., and Anthony J. Skowronek, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract:  An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure - like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of   rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft-tissue tumor of humans and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals. 

Key words: Baird’s tapir, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, nasopharynx, neoplasia, Tapirus bairdii. 

未成年中美貘(Tapirus bairdii)胚胎橫紋肌肉瘤 

Christopher J. Bonar, V.M.D., Albert H. Lewandowski, D.V.M., and Anthony J. Skowronek, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P 

摘要:一隻未成年的中美貘(Tapirus bairdii)患有偶發性痙攣的病史,有呼吸道疾病的症狀。最初的臨床診斷為肺炎,並以抗生素治療。動物在經過14天的治療後,病情仍無改善,而臨床病徵呈現單側性的鼻腔血樣分泌物。經內視鏡及放射線檢查,顯現一個軟組織腫塊,壓在鼻咽部的軟顎處。該貘在發病後32天死亡,組織學檢查顯示腫塊為間質細胞腫瘤,由具長型細胞核的紡錘狀細胞構成緻密束狀纖維所組成。腫瘤化的紡錘細胞呈現明顯的交錯橫紋。經免疫組織化學染色,顯現細胞對肌間蛋白、肌球素呈現陽性反應,但是對平滑肌肌動蛋白呈現陰性,確診為橫紋肌肉瘤。胚胎橫紋肌肉瘤在人類的鼻咽軟組織腫瘤中最為常見,在狗、馬、豬則偶有報告。在單側性的鼻腔分泌物和吸氣性喘息聲的病例,腫瘤是必要的鑑別診斷,即便是在年幼的動物亦然。

關鍵字:中美貘(Tapirus bairdii)胚胎橫紋肌肉瘤、鼻咽、腫瘤生成、

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師

 

Pages 125-126 

MEASUREMENT OF THYROID HORMONES (THYROXINE-T4, TRIIODOTHYRONINE-T3) IN CAPTIVE NON-DOMESTIC FELIDS 

Débora Cattaruzzi Rodini, M.S., D.V.M., Erika Cristiane Gutierrez Felippe, BIO., and Cláudio Alvarenga Oliveira, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D. 

Abstract:  The aim of this research is to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in non-domestic felids. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive non-domestic felid: jaguar (Panthera onca), n=49; puma (Puma concolor), n=10;  ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), n=22;  oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), n=12;  geoffroy (Oncifelis geoffroyi), n=4; jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), n=8; margay (Leopardus wiedii), n=7; lion (Panthera leo), n=26; and tiger (Panthera tigris), n=7. For each species, mean (±SEM) of T3 and T4 were, respectively: jaguar 0.56 ± 0.03 ng/ml and 9.7 ± 0.8  ng/ml; puma 0.67 ± 0.04 ng/ml and 11.2 ± 1.2 ng/ml; ocelot  0.48  ± 0.03 ng/ml and 13.8 ± 1.5 ng/ml;  oncilla 0.43 ± 0.03 ng/ml and 10.0 ± 1.6 ng/ml;  geoffroy 0.44 ±  0.04 ng/ml and 8.0 ± 0.16 ng/ml;   jaguarundi 0.7 ± 0.03 ng/ml and 5.0 ± 1.0 ng/ml; margay 0.48 ± 0.04 ng/ml and 12.2 ± 2.3 ng/ml;  lion 0.43 ± 0.02 ng/ml and 5.7 ± 2.6 ng/ml and tiger 0.66 ± 0.03 ng/ml and 12.6 ± 0.9 ng/ml. Within species, T3 and T4 concentrations did not differ (p>0.05) between males and females.  

Key words: Solid-phase radioimmunoassay, thyroid hormones, non-domestic felids. 

圈飼野生貓科動物的甲狀腺內泌素測量

Débora Cattaruzzi Rodini, M.S., D.V.M., Erika Cristiane Gutierrez Felippe, BIO., and Cláudio Alvarenga Oliveira, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D. 

摘要:本研究之目的在於取得圈飼野生貓科動物的甲狀腺素基本數據,以評估其功能。在9145隻圈養的野生貓科動物,血清中甲狀腺內泌素濃度(T4, T3)以放射性免疫分析法測定;其中包括:美洲豹(Panthera onca)49隻、山獅 (Puma concolor) 10隻、豹貓 (Leopardus pardalis)22隻、虎貓(Leopardus tigrinus) 12隻、美洲漁豹(Oncifelis geoffroyi) 4隻、細腰貓(Herpailurus yaguarondi) 8隻、豹斑貓 (Leopardus wiedii) 7隻、非洲獅(Panthera leo) 26; 及老虎 (Panthera tigris) 7隻。在各物種的甲狀腺內泌素T3 T4平均濃度分別為:美洲豹0.56 ± 0.03 ng/ml 9.7 ± 0.8  ng/ml、山獅0.67 ± 0.04 ng/ml11.2 ± 1.2 ng/ml、豹貓0.48  ± 0.03 ng/ml 13.8 ± 1.5 ng/ml、虎貓0.43 ± 0.03 ng/ml 10.0 ± 1.6 ng/ml、美洲漁豹0.44 ±  0.04 ng/ml 8.0 ± 0.16 ng/ml細腰貓0.7 ± 0.03 ng/ml 5.0 ± 1.0 ng/ml;豹斑貓0.48 ± 0.04 ng/ml 12.2 ± 2.3 ng/ml; 非洲獅0.43 ± 0.02 ng/ml 5.7 ± 2.6 ng/ml; 與老虎0.66 ± 0.03 ng/ml 12.6 ± 0.9 ng/ml. 在各物種中甲狀腺內泌素T3、T4濃度在公母性別上並無差異(p>0.05)。 

關鍵字:固相放射免疫分析法、甲狀腺內泌素、野生貓科動物

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師 

 

Pages 127-130 

DIAGNOSIS AND CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF MULTIPLE CHROMATOPHOROMAS IN AN EASTERN YELLOWBELLY RACER (COLUBER CONSTRICTOR FLAVIVENTRIS) 

Wm. Kirk Suedmeyer, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Jeffrey N. Bryan, D.V.M., M.S., Dipl. ACVIM (Oncology), Gayle Johnson, D.V.M., Ph.D, Dipl. A.C.V.P, and April Freeman, D.V.M.

     

Abstract:  A wild caught sub-adult Eastern yellowbelly racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) presented with three raised, circumscribed, freely moveable subcutaneous masses over the dorsal and right epaxial musculature of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Microscopic examination and special staining of surgically excised masses were diagnostic for chromatophoroma. No metastases were apparent on whole body plain film radiographs and computed tomography. Additional excisional biopsies of previously affected sites performed 13 wk later demonstrated normal skin and subcutis. The snake recovered uneventfully and continued to do well 18 mo later. Surgical excision of chromatophoromas remains the treatment of choice in snakes. Subcutaneous masses in snakes should be thoroughly investigated.

Key words:  Chromatophoromas, computed tomography, Eastern yellowbelly racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris), Fontana-Masson droplets, S-100 protein

 

東部黃腹遊蛇(COLUBER CONSTRICTOR FLAVIVENTRIS)多發性皮膚色素細胞瘤之診斷與臨床處理 

摘要: 一隻野外捕捉的東部黃腹遊蛇(Coluber constrictor flaviventris)亞成個體,在頸椎與胸椎間的背側與右側軸肌肉,發現3個界線分明、可自由移動的皮下突起腫塊。從外科切除的腫塊,經顯微鏡檢察與特殊染色診斷為皮膚色素細胞瘤。在全身放射線學與電腦斷層造影檢查,並未見轉移的現象。13週後於原本發病的部位,再採集生檢檢體,顯示為正常皮膚與皮下組織。蛇完全的恢復,並且往後18個月都正常。外科手術切除仍是蛇皮膚色素細胞瘤治療的首選。蛇的皮下腫塊都應該做徹底的檢查。 

關鍵字: 皮膚色素細胞瘤、電腦斷層造影、東部黃腹遊蛇(Coluber constrictor flaviventris)Fontana-Masson小滴、S-100 蛋白

譯者:台北動物園 賴燕雪獸醫師 

 

Pages 131-134

LETHAL OZOLAIMUS MEGATYPHLON INFECTION IN A GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA RHINOLOPA) 

Panayiotis Loukopoulos, D.V.M., Dip.V.St., Ph.D., Anastasia Komnenou, D.V.M., Dr.Med.Vet., Elias Papadopoulos D.V.M., M.Sc., Dr.Med.Vet., Dipl. E.V.P.C., Vassilios Psychas, D.V.M., Dr.Med.Vet. 

Abstract:  An imported 2.5 year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana rhinolopa) kept in Greece was presented with a history of anorexia and allotriophagy of one month duration. Upon clinical examination, it was cachectic and had severe abdominal distension and fibrous osteodystrophy. Despite treatment, it died a month later. On necropsy, massive accumulations of thread-like nematode parasites were observed in the large intestine, identified as Ozolaimus megatyphlon, a member of the Oxyuridae family of Pharyngodonidae, and usually non-pathogenic intestinal parasite of iguanas. To the authors’ knowledge, its presence has not been reported previously in Europe, although one pathogenic infection has been reported previously in Japan. The animal was presumably infected before importation. While death was attributed to the heavy parasitic overload, the poor diet and terrarium hygiene, and absence of an anthelminthic regime further contributed to the deterioration of the animal’s condition. Recognition of this condition, which may be recently introduced or underdiagnosed, may help improve medical and trade standards concerning this species in practice. 

Key words: Iguana, imported species, nematoda, new companion animal, Ozolaimus megatyphlon, parasitic diseases.  

綠鬣蜥(IGUANA IGUANA RHINOLOPA)致死性Ozolaimus megatyphlon線蟲感染 

摘要:一隻進口並飼養於希臘的2.5歲雌性綠鬣蜥(Iguana iguana rhinolopa),呈現食慾不振長達一個月。臨床檢查呈現惡體質、嚴重的腹部腫大與纖維性骨營養不良症。動物於治療一個月後死亡。解剖時,發現大腸堆積大量線蟲樣寄生蟲,鑑定為Ozolaimus megatyphlon,屬於中咽齒科(Pharyngodonidae) 的尖尾科(Oxyuridae),在綠鬣蜥通常為非病原性腸道內寄生蟲。據作者所知,在日本有一個感染案例報告,歐洲先前並無病例報告。推測該動物在輸入前感染,死亡原因為大量的寄生蟲感染、不良的食物與飼養環境衛生,及缺乏驅蟲計畫,造成動物的情況惡化。了解目前輸入與診斷的狀況,在實務上有助於該物種醫療與貿易標準流程之改善。

關鍵字:綠鬣蜥(Iguana iguana rhinolopa)、外來物種、線蟲、 新伴侶動物、Ozolaimus megatyphlon、寄生蟲性疾病。

譯者:台北動物園 賴燕雪獸醫師

 

Pages 135-139 

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC EXTRUSION AND SPINAL DECOMPRESSION IN A BINTURONG (ARCTICTIS BINTURONG) 

Maria Spriggs, D.V.M., Jason Arble, D.V.M., and Gwen Myers, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  A 10-year-old binturong Arctictis binturong developed an acute onset of hind limb paralysis.  Neurological examination revealed sensorimotor paraplegia.   Myelography and computed tomography demonstrated a ventrolateral extradural compression of the spinal cord centered over the L3-4 intervertebral disc space.  Spinal decompression was performed via hemilaminectomy and excision of degenerate nucleus pulposus, confirmed by histopathologic examination.  The binturong regained slight motor function by day 8 postoperatively although succumbed to pancreatitis 19 days postoperatively. 

Key wordsArctictis binturong, binturong, hemilaminectomy, intervertebral disc disease, spinal decompression. 

貄貓(ARCTICTIS BINTURONG)的椎間盤突出與脊柱減壓

Maria Spriggs, D.V.M., Jason Arble, D.V.M., and Gwen Myers, D.V.M. 

摘要:一隻十歲的貄貓(Arctictis binturong)出現急性後肢麻痺的症狀。神經學檢查顯示為感覺運動神經截癱。脊髓攝影及電腦斷層顯示第三四腰椎椎間盤間,有脊髓的腹外側硬膜外壓迫的問題。透過施行半椎板切除術及切除退化的椎間核,以達到脊柱減壓。並且經由組織病理學檢查來確認。這隻貄貓在術後第八天重新恢復輕微的運動功能,但是在術後第十九天因為胰臟炎而死亡。 

關鍵字:貄貓(Arctictis binturong)、半椎板切除術、椎間盤疾病、脊柱減壓

譯者:台北動物園 郭俊成獸醫師 

 

Pages 139-142

EVIDENCE OF CANINE DISTEMPER AND SUGGESTION OF PRECEDING PARVOVIRUS-MYOCARDITIS IN A EURASIAN BADGER (MELES MELES)

 

Hugo Burtscher, D.V.M., Dipl. E.C.V.P., and Angelika Url, D.V.M.                                              

Abstract:  An approximately 1.5 yr old, free-ranging, male Eurasian badger (Meles meles) from the eastern part of Austria had macroscopic and microscopic lesions consistent with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, including nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, interstitial pneumonia with accumulation of macrophages in alveoli that contained intranuclear inclusion bodies, vesicular exanthema of the ventral abdomen, and atrophy of lymphoid tissues. Canine distemper virus antigen was demonstrable in a variety of organs using immunohistology. In addition, there were widespread areas of fibrosis in the myocardium that were rich in collagen and paucicellular. Because such changes are comparable to sequelae of the acute cardiac form of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs, it was speculated that this badger may have experienced CPV myocarditis as a cub but the corresponding antigen or DNA was not detectable due to resolution of the disease.  

Key words:  Badger, canine distemper virus, immunohistochemistry, Meles meles, myocarditis, parvovirus. 

歐亞獾(MELES MELES)之犬瘟熱感染及曾罹患小病毒心肌炎的証明

Hugo Burtscher, D.V.M., Dipl. E.C.V.P., and Angelika Url, D.V.M.    

摘要:一隻大約一歲半,來自奧地利東部的野生雄性歐亞獾(Meles meles),在外觀及顯微鏡下病灶,都呈現犬瘟熱病毒的感染,包括:非化膿性腦膜腦炎、間質性肺炎於肺泡內積聚含有核內包涵體的巨噬細胞、腹面的腹壁出現水泡疹,以及淋巴組織的萎縮。犬瘟熱病毒的抗原,藉由組織免疫學檢測,證實存在不同的臟器。此外,在廣泛纖維化現象的心肌,富含膠原蛋白及paucicellular。由於這樣的變化類似於犬隻感染急性心臟型犬小病毒所引起的後遺症。但由於相關的病原或DNA沒有被偵測出來來證實,僅能推測這隻獾在幼年時可能感染過犬小病毒心肌炎。 

關鍵字:獾、犬瘟熱病毒、免疫組織化學、歐亞獾(Meles meles)、心肌炎、小病毒

譯者:台北動物園 郭俊成獸醫師 
 

 

Pages 143-145  

HYPOTHYROIDISM IN AN AFRICAN FOREST BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER NANUS) 

Matthew C. Allender, D.V.M., M.S., Michael Briggs, D.V.M., M.S., and Clifford F. Shipley, D.V.M. 

Abstract:  An adult female African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) of unknown age was presented with signs of recurrent hoof overgrowth, persistent anestrous, obesity, dull hair coat, and decreased activity level. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistry values were unremarkable. Decreased concentrations of total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine were noted when compared to values for normal domestic cattle and a healthy African forest buffalo.  Treatment with oral levothyroxine increased blood concentrations of total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine, and subsequent improvement in clinical signs included weight loss, hair re-growth, and reproductive cycling.

Key Words: African forest buffalo, hypothyroidism, Syncerus caffer, thyroxine, TT3. 

一隻非洲森林野牛(SYNCERUS CAFFER NANUS)之甲狀腺機能減退症

Matthew C. Allender, D.V.M., M.S., Michael Briggs, D.V.M., M.S., and Clifford F. Shipley, D.V.M. 

摘要一隻年齡不詳的雌性成年非洲森林野牛(Syncerus caffer nanus),在臨床呈現反復的蹄部生長過度、持續性不發情、肥胖、被毛粗糙及活力下降的現象。全血球細胞計數及血清生化數值均未出現明顯異常。但總甲狀腺素的T3、T4濃度與正常的家牛及健康的非洲森林野牛相比則較低。經以口服levothyroxine治療,以增加血液中總甲狀腺素T3、T4濃度後,臨床症狀已獲得改善,包括體重減輕、被毛新生及繁殖週期再現。 

關鍵字:非洲森林野牛(Syncerus caffer)甲狀腺機能減退症、甲狀腺素

譯者:台北動物園 張志華獸醫師 

 

Pages 146-149

Recurrent tongue tip constriction in a captive giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

Hanspeter W. Steinmetz, Dr. med. vet., M.Sc., Marcus Clauss, Dr. med. vet., Dipl. E.C.V.C.N., Karsten Feige, Prof. Dr. med vet., Tanja Thio, Dr. med. vet., Ewald Isenbügel, Prof. Dr. med. vet., and Jean-Michel Hatt, Prof. Dr. med. vet., M.Sc.

 

Abstract:  A male giant anteater (Myrmecophage tridactyla) was treated twice for tongue tip constrictions. Clinical signs were partial anorexia, soft stool, bleeding from the mouth, and intermittent lingual discomfort. In the first presentation, wood fibers constricting the distal part of the tongue were detected by endoscopy and were removed. In the second presentation, bands of collagenous fibers were identified and resected. Dietary elements were responsible for both cases: elongated wood fibers were present in peat, which was included as a supplement to improve stool consistency, and collagenous fibers originated from fascias of lean meat, which served as a protein source in this diet. Preventive measures included sieving of the peat to eliminate long fibers and grinding of the meat, respectively, prior to diet presentation. A homogenous diet, utilizing cellulose rather than peat and dry cat food rather than meat, will avoid tongue tip constriction as described in these cases. 

Key words: Constriction, diet, giant anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, tongue, tourniquet syndrome. 

一隻圈養大食蟻獸(Myrmecophaga tridactyla)的再發性舌尖狹縮

Hanspeter W. Steinmetz, Dr. med. vet., M.Sc., Marcus Clauss, Dr. med. vet., Dipl. E.C.V.C.N., Karsten Feige, Prof. Dr. med vet., Tanja Thio, Dr. med. vet., Ewald Isenbügel, Prof. Dr. med. vet., and Jean-Michel Hatt, Prof. Dr. med. vet., M.Sc. 

摘要:一隻雄性大食蟻獸(Myrmecophage tridactyla)因為舌尖挾縮被治療兩次。臨床症狀為食慾減退、軟便、口腔出血及反覆的舌頭不適。在第一次發生時,透過內視鏡發現了木質纖維束缚住舌頭末梢,並同時將之移除。第二次發生時,發現是被膠質纖維構成的束帶束縛,以切除處理。這兩個病因皆源自於食物中的成分:其中之一為改善糞便硬度,所添加泥煤中的長型木質纖維;以及作為蛋白質來源的瘦肉肌膜的膠質纖維。預防性的方式,包括在給食前先篩濾泥煤,以減少長纖維,並將肉磨碎。利用同類型的食物如木質素及乾的貓食,取代泥煤及肉類,將可避免此類舌尖挾縮病例的發生。 

關鍵字:挾縮、食物、大食蟻獸(Myrmecophage tridactyla)、舌頭、止血帶症候群

譯者:台北動物園 郭俊成獸醫師 

 

Pages 150-153 

OVARIAN DYSGERMINOMAS IN TWO MOUNTAIN CHICKEN FROGS (LEPTODACTYLUS FALLAX) 

Scott D. Fitzgerald, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Ann E. Duncan, D.V.M., Chris Tabaka, D.V.M., Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., April Dieter, L.V.T., and Matti Kiupel, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P. 

Abstract: This report describes the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of ovarian dysgerminomas in two adult female mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) from the same zoological institution.  One frog was found dead; and the other had been ill for several days with a bloated abdomen and lethargy.  On necropsy, large pale multilobulated masses replaced the left ovary in both frogs, and one frog also had numerous smaller nodules scattered throughout the coelomic viscera.  Histologically, these masses were composed of sheets and cords of polyhedral discrete germ cells consistent with the diagnosis of dysgerminoma.  Neoplastic cells stained positive with immunohistochemistry for Oct4, which has been reported to detect stem cells including germ cells in a variety of species including humans.  Ovarian tumors are uncommonly encountered in both reptiles and amphibians, and this is the first report of dysgerminoma in any amphibian species. 

Key words: Dysgerminoma, Leptodactylus fallax, mountain chicken frog, neoplasia, ovary.  

兩隻山雞蛙LEPTODACTYLUS FALLAX)卵巢惡性胚胎瘤病例

Scott D. Fitzgerald, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P., Ann E. Duncan, D.V.M., Chris Tabaka, D.V.M., Michael M. Garner, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.V.P., April Dieter, L.V.T., and Matti Kiupel, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P.  

摘要:本病例主要是報告來至同一動物園組織的兩隻成年雌性山雞蛙(Leptodactylus fallax),罹患卵巢惡性胚胎瘤之眼觀、組織及組織免疫化學特徵。一隻青蛙發現時已經死亡,另外一隻則生病好幾天,呈現腹部膨大及虛弱現象。病理解剖後發現,在兩隻青蛙的左邊卵巢都發現有大型、顏色蒼白、呈多分葉的腫塊。其中一隻青蛙在內臟漿膜面,散佈大量的小型結節。在組織學上,這些腫塊包含大量的分葉和索狀多邊形且不連續的生發細胞,經診斷為惡性胚胎瘤。腫瘤細胞經以可偵測許多物種及人類幹細胞,包含生發細胞的Otc4免疫化學染色,結果呈陽性反應。卵巢細胞腫瘤在爬蟲類及兩棲類很少發生,這是在兩棲類首次發生惡性胚胎瘤的報告。  

關鍵字:惡性胚胎瘤、山雞蛙(Leptodactylus fallax)、腫瘤、卵巢

譯者:台北動物園 李安興獸醫師

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