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Carcasses should be radiographed, if possible, prior to necropsy to detect subtle bony changes and pathologic conditions which may be missed during routine necropsy. Radiographs will aid the pathologist, and will help establish a radiographic database for Ring-tailed lemurs of all ages.

Information on the necropsy report should include:

Animal identification/accession number
Date and time of death
Date and time of necropsy
Enclosure ID (indicate whether indoor or outdoor)
Weather conditions of enclosure when found dead
Parent or hand-reared
Dam ID
Sire ID
Movements or relocations (date, from where, to where):




Clinical history and past treatments:


Necropsy findings (describe lesions in detail and
indicate which organs were not examined)





Tissue submitted for histopathology:


Tissues frozen


Special tests (vitamin analysis, toxicology, etc.)


Please send a copy of necropsy results to:
Dr. Roberta Wallace
Milwaukee County Zoo
10001 W. Bluemound Rd.
Milwaukee, WI 53226


The following tissues may be placed together in a single container of 10% neutral buffered formalin. The volume of formalin should be 10 times the volume of the tissues collected. To ensure proper fixation, the tissue sections should be no thicker than 0.5 cm. Please, if possible, hold at your institution.

Skin Spleen
Muscle (pectoral and thigh) Kidney
Sciatic nerve (with thigh muscle) Adrenal
Tongue Gonad
Esophagus Uterus or epididymis
Stomach Thyroid and parathyroid
Duodenum Thymus
Jejunum Trachea
Ileum Lung
Cecum Heart
Colon Aorta
Rectum Pituitary
Liver with gallbladder Eye
Pancreas Femoral bone marrow

Freeze the following tissues (at least 10 grams for each tissue, wrapped in foil separately and placed into separate plastic bags):

Liver, spleen, brain, heart, lung, skeletal muscle.

Preferably tissues should be frozen at -80 C, but if an ultralow freezer is not available, placement of tissues in a standard freezer should be sufficient for short-term storage. These can be discarded later if they are not needed for diagnostic purposes, but should be saved if possible.

Of Special Note
Dr. Linda Munson is requesting the reproductive tracts of all female primates upon their death regardless of their contraceptive history. It is very important to obtain a good sample size from both non-contracepted and contracepted females. Please remind your veterinarian, primate curator and primate keepers to save the reproductive tract of all female ring-tailed lemurs at necropsy. Included are Dr. Munson's instructions and a copy of the AZA Contraceptive Pathology survey to send to her.


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