Print Page | Contact Us | Sign In | Join Today

SSP/TAG:             Pallas’ cats                                                                 DATE: 2/28/04



Name:              Cornelia J. Ketz-Riley        e-mail:   


Address:             Topeka Zoological Park

                        635 SW Gage Blvd

                        Topeka, KS 66606                                                                                     


Phone: (day)            (785) 368-9146        (FAX) (785) 368-9152


MORBIDITY (Significant illnesses/issues facing this species this year):







MORTALITY (Causes of death in this year):

Cause of Death                                                 SB #               Sex                 Age






BIRTHS:  Males:                                                                         Females:

Number of pairs recommended for breeding:

Number of pairs bred:

Number of births:

            MALES:  mother-reared:                                    hand-reared:

            FEMALES: mother-reared:                                    hand-reared:



ANESTHESTIC PROTOCOLS (Please list successful and unsuccessful protocols):

a)     Isoflurane – Induction via face mask or chamber (crate) at 4-5 % isoflurane in 4 L Oxygen and maintenance via endotracheal tube (approx. size 4 mm depending on size of cat) at 2-3% Isoflurane in 1- 2 L Oxygen (depending on size of cat).

Diazepam 0.3-0.5 mg/kg PO as premedication can be considered if cats are not crate-trained and the capture could be stressful. Butorphanol 0.2-0.3 mg/kg IM can be added for invasive procedures.

b Medetomidine 0.05 mg/kg plus Ketamine 2.0-3.0 mg/kg IM; for invasive procedures Butorphanol 0.2-0.3 mg/kg IM can be added. Medetomidine will be reversed at 0.25 mg/kg IM (IV injection may cause rough recovery).

Medetomidine is causing a depression of the blood pressure and vasoconstriction, which can interfere with a successful blood collection of a larger amount of blood.




VACCINE RECOMMENDATIONS (Vaccine reactions, new vaccines to be considered):

Rabies annually

Feline Combo vaccines (FVRCP etc) can be used in Pallas’ cats, yet killed vaccines need to be used annually or every other year in older cats (over 4-5 years). Modified life virus vaccines against Feline Herpes and Panleukopenia can cause disease outbreaks in immune-compromized cats.



CONTRACEPTION (Methods used, successes, failures):

Due to small population size, high neonatal mortality with need for increased breeding activity contraception was not needed in the Pallas’ cat population of the US.



Onset of puberty and reproductive function in Pallas’ cats (Cincinnati Zoo)


Genetic rescue of founder genes from herpes-infected Pallas’ cats (NCSU)


Nutritional requirements of Pallas’ cats at all life stages (NCSU/Cincinnati Zoo/Mongolia)


Safety and effectiveness of diclazuril for preventing toxoplasmosis in Pallas’ cats (Cincinnati Zoo)



Standard felid diets (vitamin/mineral supplemented, raw horse meat) may be fed with occasional supplementation with whole prey (mice, chicks) but because of concerns about toxoplasmosis in this species, a certified Toxoplasma-free diet should be used and access to any wild prey in exhibits should be prevented.  High quality commercial cat foods may be used as an alternative Toxo-free diet (ongoing research is assessing adequacy for meeting nutritional needs at all of life’s stages). 


Dry food is preferred over canned food to reduce risk of dental problems.

For enrichment items or items used as treats in training sessions fresh fish (live or dead), chicks (fresh or frozen) canned fish (tuna), canned meat, chewables of pig ears or rawhide can be offered.



Due to the high susceptibility to toxoplasmosis it is recommended to screen Pallas’ cats twice a year for their toxo titer, preferably in December at the beginning of the breeding season (December-March) and in Mai-July to include the offspring in the screening process.

If breeding females have a positive toxo titer a prophylactic treatment of the offspring post partum for 8 weeks with Diclazuril PO should be considered. Dose recommendations are available via personal contact. Official dose recommendations will be available upon completion and publication of the study on safety and effectivness of diclazuril in Pallas’ cats.



Further information from facilities keeping Pallas’ cats is needed for composition of a husbandry manual and related protocols. A questionnaire in order to retrieve this information is in preparation.




Research is ongoing in Mongolia with wild Pallas’ cats, coordinated by Dr. Meredith Brown.  Current studies are using radiocollaring to assess range sizes of wild Pallas’ cats and investigating the impact of broad-based rodenticide application on population densities of Pallas’ cats and their prey. 



Ketz-Riley CJ, MV Richard, RA VanDen Bussche, JP Hoover, J Meinkoth, and AA Kocan. 2003. An intraerythrocytic small piroplasm in wild-caught Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) from Mongolia. J Wildl Dis 39 (2): 424-430.

Ketz-Riley CJ, JW Ritchey, JP Hoover, CM Johnson, MT Barrie. 2003. Immunodeficiency associated with multiple concurrent infections in captive Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul). J Zoo Wildl Med 34 (3): 239-245.

Newell AE, S Kennedy-Stoskopf, J Levine, JL Brown, and WF Swanson.  2003.  Analysis of testosterone and cortisol fecal metabolites in male Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) housed under artificial lighting conditions.  Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vet  pp. 294-295.

Brown JL, LH Graham, J Wu, D Collins and WF Swanson.  2002.  Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul).  Zoo Biol. 21:347-364.

Brown M, MR Lappin, JL Brown, B Munkhtsog and WF Swanson.  2002.  Exploring the ecological basis for extreme susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to fatal toxoplasmosis: comparison of wild and captive populations.  Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vet  pp. 12-15.


Kenny DE, MR Lappin, F Knightly, J Baier, M Brewer and DM Getzy. 2002. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus felis manul) at the Denver Zoological Gardens. J Zoo Wildl Med 33 (2): 131-138.


Swanson WF and S Kennedy-Stoskopf.  2002.  Reproductive seasonality of male Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) maintained under artificial lighting with simulated natural photoperiods.  Biol Reprod 66:260.


Swanson WF, J Bond and M Bush.  2001.  Assessment of diclazuril toxicity in neonatal domestic cats (Felis catus) and initial application for prevention and treatment of toxoplasmosis in neonatal Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul).  Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vet.  pp. 390-391.


Swanson WF.  1999.  Toxoplasmosis and neonatal mortality in Pallas' cats: a survey of North American zoological institutions.  Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vet.  pp. 347-350.

Swanson WF, JL Brown and DE Wildt.  1996.  Influence of seasonality on reproductive traits in the male Pallas' cat (Felis manul) and implications for captive management.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 27:234-240.


581705 White Oak Road
Yulee, FL 32097 USA

Contact Us

Local: (904) 225-3275
Fax: (904) 225-3289

Connect With Us