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SSP/TAG:             Gibbon SSP                                                 DATE: 1 March 2004



Name:              P.K. Robbins                            e-mail:


Address:            Disney’s Animal Kingdom

                        P.O. Box 10,000   

                        Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830-1000                                                              


Phone: (day)            407-938-1911                     (FAX): 407-939-6391


MORBIDITY (Significant illnesses/issues facing this species this year):

Several incidents of loose stool in otherwise BAR animals. Extensive diagnostics were mostly unrewarding though Campylobacter sp. was isolated from one culture , tamoeba coli was found on one faecal exam, and low numbers of Trichomonas sp. were  an occasional finding. Balantidium spp. was also found intermittently on faecal exam. Symptomatic treatment has included: metronidazole, doxycycline, iodoquinol, bismuth subsalicylate, and the use of coconut macaroons to improve stool consistency. A dietary component to this condition is suspected. There was one report of vomiting due to hiatal hernia that responded to Clavamox and omeprazole therapy and one report of severe ankylosing cervical and thoracic vertebrae that caused intermittent posterior paresis in an aged male.


MORTALITY (Causes of death in this year):

Cause of Death                                                         SB #               Sex                 Age

Acute Bronchopneumonia         (Siamang)                351                 Female          10 yo

Unknown                                      (White Cheeked)    0119               Male                22 yo

Unknown                                       (White Cheeked)    0055               Male                31 yo

Neoplasia                                                   (Lar)            914                 Male               

Meningoencephalitis (HSV-1)                  (Lar)            171                 Female          44 yo

Pneumonia and Bacterial Hepatitis         (Lar)            3233               Male                17 yo

Larval Migrans (spinal cord, brain stem) (Lar)            938                 Male                49 yo

  [He also had myocardial degeneration, endocardiosis, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis]  Angiostrongylus cantonensis was likely the migrating parasite.



Siamang:                   4.2            (3 of these births were from pairs not recommended for breeding)

Lar:                             1.0

Buff Cheeked:            1.0

Mueller’s:                    0.0.1

Agile:                          0.0.1

Javan                          0.0.2

Hoolock:                     0.0                  

White Cheeked:               0.1


            MALES:  mother-reared:                                    hand-reared:    1 Lar (Omaha)

            FEMALES: mother-reared:                                    hand-reared:    1 White cheeked (Memphis)

DAK: 1.0 Siamang, born 21 May 2003. He is currently being father-reared due to challenges getting his mother to accept him.


ANESTHESTIC PROTCOLS (Please list successful and unsuccessful protocols):

Majority of institutions rely on ketamine as the sole agent or in combination with medetomidine, xylazine, and/or telazol. Some institutions use telazol as the sole agent. There were thee reports of diazepam as pre-med as well as one report of oral carfentanil as a reversible pre-med (using naltrexone once telazol had been successfully injected). Isoflurane was also employed, usually after injectables.


VACCINE RECOMMENDATIONS (Vaccine reactions, new vaccines to be considered):

No changes at this time


CONTRACEPTION (Methods used, successes, failures):

Reported methods of contraception included Depo-provera injections and MGA implants. No unwanted births have resulted, but one institution reported that the male conspecific had become aggressive toward a female after an MGA implant had been placed. Once the implant was removed, the aggression subsided. Another institution reported heavy menstrual bleeding in spite of MGA implant placement. Tubal ligation and OHE have been employed successfully for permanent contraception.



The Gladys Porter Zoo has been investigating an artificial insemination project with pileated gibbons.

The Miami MetroZoo has collaborated with CRES on a genome/karyotyping project. They are also applying for a grant to investigate the presence of Angiostrongylus on grounds, following the death of a geriatric male Lar who was found to have spinal and brainstem larval migrans.



Nutritional recommendations are currently under review by Barb Lintzenich.



The Pre-shipment, Quarantine and Preventative Health Guidelines have been submitted for the soon to be completed Gibbon Husbandry Manual



Dr. Dee McAloose is in the process of generating a Necropsy protocol for the Gibbon SSP.



 Lori Sheeran is the named Field Conservation Advisor for the Gibbon SSP and may have more information available.







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