VETERINARY ADVISOR CONTACT INFORMATION:
Randy Junge, DVM – TAG Advisor Martha Weber, DVM – Ruffed lemur SSP
St. Louis Zoo St. Louis Zoo
1 Government Drive 1 Government Drive
St. Louis, MO 63110 St. Louis, MO 63110
314-781-0900 ext 487 314-781-0900 ext 565
Cathy Williams DVM – Eulemur SSP Roberta Wallace, DVM – Ringtail SSP
Duke University Primate Center Milwaukee County Zoo
3705 Erwin Road 10001 W Bluemound Road
Durham, NC 27705 Milwaukee, WI 53226
919-489-3364 ext 221 414-771-3040
Meg Sutherland-Smith, DVM. Pygmy Loris SSP Ilse Stalis, DVM, Pathology Advisor
San Diego Zoo San Diego Zoo
San Diego, CA92112-0551 San Diego, CA92112-0551
MORBIDITY (Significant illnesses/issues facing this species this year):
No unique causes of morbidity reported recently
MORTALITY (Causes of death in this year):
Cause of Death SB # Sex Age
BIRTHS: Males: Females:
Number of pairs recommended for breeding:
Number of pairs bred:
Number of births:
MALES: mother-reared: hand-reared:
FEMALES: mother-reared: hand-reared:
ANESTHESTIC PROTCOLS (Please list successful and unsuccessful protocols):
VACCINE RECOMMENDATIONS (Vaccine reactions, new vaccines to be considered):
No vaccines are recommended for routine use in prosimians. Some institutions use rabies vaccine in situations where exposure potential exists. No reactions have been reported. Efficacy has not been demonstrated.
Tetanus toxoid is also used at some institutions. No reactions have been reported. Efficacy has not been demonstrated.
CONTRACEPTION (Methods used, successes, failures):
MGA implants during breeding season.
Depo-Provera 5 mg/kg IM, repeat as needed during breeding season.
(q 60 days for Eulemur spp and Varecia and q 40 days for L.catta and Hapalemur) .
Depo-Provera has the advantage of shorter action but may lead to androgenizing effects (coat color change, body mass increase).
ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS:
Do not give vitamin supplements containing iron.
NEW HEALTH CARE RECOMMENDATIONS:
NEW SSP/TAG PROTOCOLS:
INFORMATION FROM THE FIELD:
Ring-tailed lemurs at Berenty are exhibiting significant seasonal alopecia which may be related to consumption of an introduced tree (Leucaena leucocephala); ongoing investigation by Dr. Graham Crawford, San Francisco Zoo
Prosimian Biomedical Research Project has collected physiological, biomedical, and nutritional information from 230 individuals of 19 species. As sufficient numbers of a species are reached, normal values papers are published. Dr. Randy Junge, St. Louis Zoo, Project Coordinator.
NEW REFERENCES FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY/WEBSITE:
Campbell JL, Williams CV, and Eisemann JH. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in-vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus, and Hapalemur griseus. Journal of Nutrition. 2002. 132:3073-3080.
Campbell, JL, Williams CV, Eiseman JH. The use of total dietary fiber across four lemur species, Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus: does fibber type affect digestive efficiency. American Journal of Primatology. In press, 2004.
Campbell, JL, Williams, CV, and Eiseman JH. Characterizing gastrointestinal transit time using barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS). American Journal of Primatology. In press, 2004.
Da Silva AJ, Caccio C, Williams CV, Won KY, Nace EK, Whittier C, Pieniazek NJ, and Eberhard ML. Molecular and morphologic characterization of a Cryptosporidium genotype identified in lemurs. Veterinary Parasitology 2003. 111(4): 297-307.
Dutton, CJ, Junge, RE, Louis EE. Biomedical Evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in Tsimanapetsotsa Reserve, Madagascar. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1):16-24, 2003
Junge RE. Prosimians. In Fowler ME, Miller RE, eds. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine 5th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. 2003. Pp334-346.
Muehlenbein MD, Schwartz M, Richard A. Parasitologic analysis of the sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3):274-277, 2003
Williams CV, Glenn KM, Levine JF, and Horne WA. Comparison of the efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-based anesthetic protocols in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). J. Zoo and Wildlife Med. 2003. 34(2): 163-170.
Williams CV, Steenhouse JL, Bradley JM, Hancock SI, Hegarty BC, and Breitschwerdt EB. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002. 8(12): 1497-1500.
Williams CV. Hand-rearing and supplementing lemurs. In Hand-Raising Wild and Domestic Mammals. Gage L, ed. Iowa State University Press. 2002. Pp:104-113.
Worley MB, Stalis IH. Detection of virus-like particles in the liver of black and white ruffed lemurs with hepatitis. J Wildl Dis 2002:38(2):258-265.