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DATE: 25 July 2006 


Name:   Claude Lacasse     e-mail: 

Address: Lincoln Park Zoo, 2001 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60614       

Phone: (day) 312-742-7222  (evening) 312-342-5044

      (FAX) 312-742-7823 

****  Studbook keeper did not provide Death/Birth information to veterinary advisor before August 2006.  Therefore, the first part of the annual report (morbidity, mortality, and births) is most likely incomplete. 

MORBIDITY (Significant illnesses/issues facing this species this year): 

      No reported death in 2005-2006.

      See enclosed document for pathology survey results from previous years. 

MORTALITY (Causes of death in this year):

Cause of Death     SB #   Sex  Age 

      No reported death in 2005-2006.

      See enclosed document for pathology survey results from previous years. 


Number of pairs recommended for breeding: 14

Number of pairs bred: ?

Number of births: 1 hand-reared at Birmingham Zoo.

                      1 parent-reared at Living Desert. 

ANESTHESTIC PROTOCOLS (Please list successful and unsuccessful protocols): 

Anesthesia with Isoflurane via facemask and endotracheal tube has been the most successful protocol used by the SSP Veterinary Advisor, but no literature exists in this species regarding anesthesia protocols. 

VACCINE RECOMMENDATIONS (Vaccine reactions, new vaccines to be considered): 

West Nile virus vaccine is recommended yearly.  See enclosed preventive medicine guidelines. 

CONTRACEPTION (Methods used, successes, failures): 

No report. 


A nest environment data logging project will most likely be started next year, coordinated by SSP chair. 

A summary of the artificial insemination work will be available soon from Denver Zoo.  Unfortunately, none of the eggs produced with this method were fertile this year. 


No report. 


No report. 


A necropsy protocol is now available for the Eurasian black vulture – see enclosed document.

The "Handbook of Birds of the World" is now used as the primary reference we should use for avian common names and scientific names.

Former Common Name              New Name                                Scientific Name

Cinereous Vulture            Eurasian Black Vulture          Aegypius monachus

This is per Raptor TAG chair Scott Tidmus.


Multiple field projects are occurring in the Caucasus that include modeling of habitats, satellite-received telemetry, individual tagging, pathogen analysis, and the production of educational materials to raise the public’s awareness (Gavashelishvili, Lexo – see bibliography). 

Reintroduction programs are being established for the Cinereous vulture in the Pre-Alps of Provence (Baronnies Massif) in France (Vulture News #52, March 2005, p.44-45). 

Elif Yamac, from the Department of Biology, Science Faculty, in Turkey investigated about population biology of Cinereous vulture in Turkmenbaba Mountains (Thesis abstract, Vulture News #52, March 2005, P.71). 

International Symposium on the Black Vulture occurred in October 2004, in Cordoba, Spain.  Status of the Cinereous vulture was described in many countries at this meeting. 

West Nile virus was found by PCR in four wild dead Eurasian black vulture in Russia (Vulture News #53, September 2005), p.34-35). 


Books and journals 

- Gavashelishvili, Lexo.  2005.  Vultures of Georgia and the Caucasus.  GCCW and Buneba Print Publishing, Tbilisi, Georgia.  96 pages.  

- Vulture study group/Endangered wildlife trust.  Vulture News.  March and September – every year. 

- Wilbur R. Sanford, and Jerome A. Jackson.  1983.  Vulture biology and management.  University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.  497 pages.   

Specific articles 

- Carrete, M., and J. A. Donazar.  2005.  Application of central-place foraging theory shows the importance of Mediterranean dehesas for the conservation of the cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus.  Biological Conservation.  126: 582-590. 

- Chitty, J., and C. Murn.  2004.  Veterinary aspects of captive Old World vultures.  Proceedings of Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV).  Pp. 117-123. 

- D’Agostino, J. J., and R. Isaza.  2004.  Clinical signs and results of specific diagnostic testing among captive birds housed at zoological institutions and infected with West Nile virus.   J. Am Vet Med Assoc.  224 (10): 1640-1643.

-  De Boer, L. E. M., and R. P. Sinoo.  1984.  A karyological study of Accipitridae (Aves: Falconiformes), with karyotypic descriptions of 16 species new to cytology.  Genetica.  65 (1):  89-107.

- Donazar, J. A., G. Blanco, F. Hiraldo, E. Soto-Largo, and J. Oria2001.  Effects of forestry and other land-use practices on the conservation of Cinereous vultures.  Ecological applications.  12 (5): 1445-1456.


- Gautschi, B., I. Tenzer, J. P. Muller, and B. Schmid.  2000.  Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and cross-amplification in three Old World vulture species.  Molecular Ecology.  9: 2193-2195.

- Gavashelishvili A., M. J. McGrady, and Z. Javakhishvili.  2006.  Planning the conservation of the breeding population of cinereous vultures Aegypius monachus in the Republic of Georgia.   Oryx.  40 (1): 76-83.

- Gavashelishvili A., and M. J. McGrady.  2006.  Geographic information system-based modeling of vulture response to carcass appearance in the Caucasus.  Journal of Zoology.  269: 365.

- Hertel, F.  1994.  Diversity in Body Size and Feeding Morphology within Past and Present Vulture Assemblages.  Ecology.  75 (4):1074-1084.

- Hiebl, I., D. Schneeganss, F. Grimm, J. Kosters, and G. Braunitzer.  1987.  The primary structures of the major and minor hemoglobin component of adult European black vulture (Aegypius monachus, Aegypiinae).  Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler.  368: 11-18. 

- Hiraldo, F, J. A. Donazar.  1990.  Foraging time in the Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus : Seasonal and local variations and influence of weather.  
Bird Stud. 37 (2): 129-132.  

- Kavun, V.Y.  2004.  Heavy metals in organs and tissues of the European black vulture (Aegypius monachus): dependence on living conditions.  Russian Journal of Ecology.  35 (1): 51-54. 

- Lerner, H. R. L., and D. P. Mindell.  2005.  Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  37: 327-346. 

- Long, J. A., M. J. Willis, N. Czekala, K. Grzybowski, K. Dematteo, E. N. Diebold, and G. Gee.  2001.  Developing artificial insemination for captive management of the Cinereous vulture.  In: The 1st International Symposium on assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and genetic management of wildlife.  Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo.  Omaha, Nebraska: 186-189. 

- Moran-Lopez, R., J. M. Sanchez, E. Costillo, C. Corbacho, and A. Villegas.  2006.  Spatial variation in anthropic and natural factors regulating the breeding success of the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in the SW Iberian Peninsula.  Biological conservation.  130 (2): 169-182. 

- Moran-Lopez, R., J. M. Sanchez Guzman, E. Costillo Borrego, and A. Villegas Sanchez.  2006.  Nest-site selection of endangered cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) populations affected by anthropogenic disturbance: present and future conservation implications.  Animal Conservation.  9: 29-37. 

- Poirazidis, K., V. Goutner, T. Skartsi, and G. Stamou.  2004.  Modelling nesting habitat as a conservation tool for the Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Dadia Nature Reserve, northeastern Greece.  Biological Conservation.  118: 235-248. 

- Seibold, I., A. J. Helbig.  1995.  Evolutionary History of New and Old World Vultures Inferred from Nucleotide Sequences of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene.  Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences.  350 (1332): 163-178. 

- Torres Esquivias, J. A , P. J. Barbudo, J. V. Ezquerra.  1980.  Structural and Temporal Dynamics of a Colony of Black Vultures, Aegypius monachus in Central Sierra Morena (Cordoba).  Boletin de la Estacion Central de Ecologia.  9 (17): 67-72. 

- Villegas, A., J. M. Sanchez, E. Costill0, and C. Corbacho.  2002.  Blood chemistry and haematocrit of the black vulture (Aegypius monachus).  Comparative biochemistry and physiology.  132 (2): 489-497. 

- Weber, R. E., I. Hiebl, and G. Braunitzer.  1988.  High altitude and hemoglobin function in the vultures Gyps rueppellii and Aegypius monachus.  Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler.  369: 233-240. 

- Wink, M., H. Sauer-Gurth, F. Martinez, G. Doval, G. Blanco, and O. Hatzofe.  1998.  The use of (GACA)4 PCR to sex Old World vultures (Aves: Accipitridae).  Molecular Ecology.  7: 779-782. 


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