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Red Wolf Necropsy Form

June 1997

American Zoo and Aquarium Association




CANID SPECIES                                                                                                      

CANID NAME OR ISIS #                                        STUD BOOK #                                 SEX            

BIRTH DATE/AGE                                               WEIGHT                                             

PRODUCED PUPS?                                              HOUSED WITH OPPOSITE SEX?                     

DATE OF DEATH                                                 DATE OF NECROPSY                                  

HISTORY: (briefly summarize clinical signs, circumstances of death):





Please have your pathologist perform histopathology on tissues.  Then send the gross examination worksheets and pathologist's report to Will Waddell at Point Defiance Zoo.






GENERAL CONDITION: (Nutritional condition, physical condition)

Neonates: examine for malformations (cleft palate, deformed limbs etc).


SKIN: (Including pinna, feet)


MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM: (Bones, joints, muscles)


BODY CAVITIES: (Fat stores, abnormal fluids)

Neonates: assess hydration (tissue moistness)


HEMOLYMPHATIC: (Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus)


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:  (Nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs, regional lymph nodes)

Neonates: determine if breathing occurred (do the lungs float in formalin?)


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: (Heart, pericardium, great vessels)


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: (Mouth, teeth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, mesenteric lymph nodes).  Neonates: is milk present in stomach?


URINARY SYSTEM: (Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra)


REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: (Testis/ovary, uterus, vagina, penis, prepuce, prostate, mammary glands, placenta)


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: (Adrenals, thyroid, parathyroids, pituitary)


NERVOUS SYSTEM: (Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves)













LABORATORY STUDIES:(List bacterial and viral cultures submitted and results, if available)






Preserve the following tissues in 10 % buffered formalin at a ratio of 1 part tissue to 10 parts formalin. Tissues should be no thicker than 1 cm.  INCLUDE SECTIONS OF ALL LESIONS AND SAMPLES OF ALL TISSUES ON THE SSP REQUIRED TISSUE LIST.

SSP REQUIRED TISSUES and recommended tissue sampling procedures:


__Salivary gland

__Oral/pharyngeal mucosa and tonsil -plus any areas with erosions, ulcerations or proliferative        lesions.

__Tongue - cross section near tip including both mucosal surfaces. 

__Lung - sections from several lobes including a major bronchus


__Thyroid/parathyroids - leave intact.

__Lymph nodes - cervical, mediastinal, bronchial, mesenteric and lumbar. Cut transversely.


__Heart - longitudinal sections including atrium, ventricle and valves from right and left sides.

__Liver - sections from 3 lobes, including gall bladder

__Spleen - Cross sections including capsule.

__GI Tract - 3 cm long sections of:


Stomach - multiple sections from cardia, fundus (body), and antrum of pylorus

Small intestines - duodenum,  jejunum, ileum

Large intestines - cecum, colon

__Omentum - ~3 cm square

__Pancreas - representative sections from two areas including central ducts

__Adrenal - entire gland with transverse incision.

__Kidney -cortex and medulla from each kidney

__Urinary bladder, ureters, urethra - cross section of bladder and 2 cm sections of ureter and                       urethra.

__Reproductive tract - Entire uterus and ovaries with longitudinal cuts into lumens of  uterine horns.  Both testes (transversely cut) with epididymis.  Entire prostate, transversely cut.     

__Eye - both eyes intact.  Remove extraocular muscles and periorbital tissues.   

__Brain - cut longitudinally along midline. Submit entire brain (retain small part of frontal cortex        frozen if desired) and pituitary gland.

__Spinal cord (if neurologic disease) - sections from cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord.

__Diaphragm and Skeletal muscle - cross section of thigh muscles

__Opened rib or longitudinally sectioned 1/2 femur - marrow must be exposed for proper fixation

__Skin - full thickness of abdominal skin, lip and ear pinna.

FROZEN TISSUE: Store in plastic bags at -70 or -20 C for toxicology:  Liver, brain, kidney and (if possible) antemortem serum and plasma frozen.  If you suspect an infectious disease, also freeze samples of small intestines, lung, spleen, and lymph nodes.




Please follow the adult protocol in addition to the following:


1. Check umbilical stump and surrounding tissues


2. Check for malformations (cleft palate, deformed limbs, heart defects)


3. Assess hydration (tissue moistness) and evidence of nursing (milk in stomach).


4. Determine if breathing occurred (do the lungs float in formalin?)


5. Check foot pads for erosions and ulcers





All tissues from the adult necropsy check-list.


Umbilicus (including external and internal vessels and surrounding skin.


Foot pads from all feet.


Extra sections of lung.



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